Anhui

In today's world, Anhui is a topic that has captured the attention of millions of people around the world. Since its appearance, it has generated debate, controversy and a profound impact on modern society. Its relevance transcends all types of borders and has positioned itself as a topic of general interest on the public agenda. As Anhui continues to evolve and take on new dimensions, it is important to closely analyze each of its aspects to understand its meaning and impact on our environment. In this article, we will explore different perspectives on Anhui and its influence in various areas of everyday life, with the aim of shedding light on this topic and fostering an informed and enriching debate.

Anhui
安徽
Province of Anhui
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese安徽省 (Ānhuī shěng)
 • AbbreviationAH / (Wǎn)
 • Lower Yangtze MandarinAng1 huei1 Sen3
(clockwise from top)
  • Panoramic view of the Huangshan landscape
  • Hongcun
  • Hefei skyline
Map showing the location of Anhui within China
Map showing the location of Anhui within China
Coordinates: 31°50′N 117°0′E / 31.833°N 117.000°E / 31.833; 117.000
CountryChina
Named forAnqing and Huizhou
Capital (and largest city)Hefei
Divisions16 prefectures, 105 counties, 1845 townships
Government
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyAnhui Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryHan Jun
 • Congress ChairpersonHan Jun
 • GovernorWang Qingxian
 • Provincial CPPCC ChairpersonTang Liangzhi
 • National People's Congress Representation111 deputies
Area
 • Total140,200 km2 (54,100 sq mi)
 • Rank22nd
Highest elevation1,873 m (6,145 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total61,027,171
 • Rank9th
 • Density440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
  • Rank9th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition
 • Languages and dialectsLower Yangtze Mandarin, Central Plains Mandarin, Gan, Wu, Huizhou
GDP (2023)
 • TotalCN¥ 4,705 billion (11th)
US$ 668 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 76,830 (13th)
US$ 10,903
ISO 3166 codeCN-AH
HDI (2021)0.744 (20th) – high
Websitewww.ah.gov.cn Edit this at Wikidata (in Chinese)
Anhui
"Anhui" in Chinese characters
Chinese安徽

Anhui is an inland province located in East China. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze and Huai rivers, bordering Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the east, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei and Henan to the west, and Shandong to the north. With a population of 61 million, Anhui is the 9th most populous province in China. It is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, and the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Anhui's population is mostly composed of Han Chinese. Languages spoken within the province include Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Wu, Hui, Gan and small portion of Central Plains Mandarin.

The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou (now Huangshan City). The abbreviation for Anhui is Wǎn (), corresponding to the historical state of Wan, and is also used to refer to the Wan River and Mount Tianzhu. The provincial government of Anhui includes a Governor, Provincial Congress, the People's Political Consultative Conference, and the Provincial Higher People's Court. Aside from managing local government departments, the Anhui provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships. Anhui's total GDP ranked 14th among China's 31 province-level regions as of 2022.

History

The old town of Sanhe, Feixi County

Anhui was established 1667, during the reign of the Qing dynasty's Kangxi Emperor. The province's nickname, "Wan", is taken from the name of a small state that existed in the region during the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BC). The name "Wan" also corresponds to the province's Mount Tianzhu and state of Wan. Evidence of human beings inhabiting what is now Anhui 20,000 years before present has been attested by archaeological findings in Fanchang County, related to he cultural domains of Yangshao and Longshan, dated to the Neolithic period (8000–2000 BC). In relation to these cultures, archeologists have discovered through excavation a 4500-year-old city called the Nanchengzi Ruins in Guzhen County, after they discovered a Neolithic city wall and a moat that was part of a much larger and integrated city in the region during their 2013 disinterment.

Anhui in 1936

There are many historical sites located in the province dating to the pre-imperial period. The culture of northern Anhui was associated with that of the North China Plain, together with what is now Henan, northern Jiangsu, and southern Shandong. Central Anhui was densely populated, and consisted of the fertile Huai River watershed. Contrastingly, southern Anhui was closer to Jiangxi and southern Jiangsu; the hills in the southeastern part of the province formed a unique cultural sphere. After the Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC, the territory of modern Anhui belonged to different prefectures, including Jiujiang, Zhang, Tang, and Sishui. The lands became part of the Yang, Yu, and Xu prefectures during the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD). During the Three Kingdoms era (222–280), Anhui was dominated at various times by Eastern Wu and Cao Wei. By the Song dynasty (960–1279), the economy and culture of area was flourishing. Anhui became part of the province of Henan during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368); during the Ming dynasty the area was directly administrated by the imperial capital in Nanjing.

Anhui and Jiangsu were merged into one province under the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) until 1666, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. It played an important role in the Self-Strengthening Movement led by Li Hongzhang during the later Qing; at this time, western weapons, factories and administrative theories were being introduced into China. Over the next 50 years, Anhui became one of the country's most radically liberal areas, with important 20th-century figures moving to the province, like the poet and diplomat Hu Shih, and Chen Duxiu, the founder of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

In 1938, large areas in north and central Anhui were severely damaged by the decision of President Chiang Kai-shek to demolish a critical dam on the Yellow River, hoping that would physically impede the ongoing invasion by the Imperial Japanese Army and prevent them from capturing Zhengzhou. Within only ten days of the dam breaking, the water and sands drowned all of north and middle area of this province, resulting in the deaths of between 500,000 and 900,000 Chinese people, as well as an unknown number of Japanese soldiers. Following the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, the capital city of Anhui moved to Hefei, then a small town. The provincial government made significant investments for its development. After 1949, the government launched projects to repair the damages suffered during World War II. The province underwent significant development via the Third Front campaign to build basic and national defense industries in protected locations, in case of invasion by the Soviet Union or United States. The centerpiece of the Shanghai Small Third Front was the "rear base" in Anhui which served as "a multi-function manufacturing base for anti-aircraft and anti-tank weaponry". During the late 1990s Anhui became one of China's fastest-growing provinces. The province forms part of the China Yangtze River Delta Economic Area, which is the most developed area of China.

Geography

Government building in Fuyang City

Anhui is topographically diverse. The north is part of the North China Plain while the north-central areas are part of the Huai River watershed. Both regions are flat, and densely populated. The land becomes more uneven further south, with the Dabie Mountains occupying much of southwestern Anhui and a series of hills and ranges cutting through southeastern Anhui, between which is the Yangtze River. The highest peak in Anhui is Lotus Peak, part of Huangshan in southeastern Anhui. It has an altitude of 1873 m (6,145 ft).

Major rivers include the Huai River in the north and the Yangtze in the south. The largest lake is Lake Chaohu situated in the center of the province, with an area of about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). The southeastern part of the province near the Yangtze River has many lakes as well.

As with topography, the province differs in climate from north to south. The north is more temperate with more distinct seasons. January temperatures average at around −1 to 2 °C north of the Huai River, and 0 to 3 °C south of the Huai River; in July temperatures average 27 °C or above. Plum rains occur in June and July and may cause flooding.

Anhui has 16 cities. Economically, top 3 cities are, Hefei, Wuhu and Anqing.

Ecology

The Anhui elm, Ulmus gaussenii W. C. Cheng, is a medium size deciduous tree whose natural range is restricted to the valleys of the Langya limestone mountains of Chu Xian. The tree was most commonly found on the flood plains, indicating a tolerance of periodic inundation. U. gaussenii is now the world's rarest and most endangered elm species, with only approximately 30 trees known to survive in the wild in 2009.

The province is also home to the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis, simplified Chinese: 扬子鳄; traditional Chinese: 揚子; pinyin: yángzǐ'è), also known as the Yangtze alligator, China alligator, or historically the muddy dragon, a critically endangered crocodilian.

Administrative divisions

Anhui is divided into sixteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Anhui
Division code Division Area in km2 Population 2020 Seat Divisions
Districts Counties CL cities
340000 Anhui Province 139,600.00 61,027,171 Hefei city 45 50 9
340100 Hefei city 11,445.06 9,369,881 Shushan District 4 4 1
340200 Wuhu city 6,004.97 3,644,420 Jiujiang District 5 1 1
340300 Bengbu city 5,950.72 3,296,408 Bengshan District 4 3
340400 Huainan city 5,532.30 3,033,528 Tianjia'an District 5 2
340500 Ma'anshan city 4,049.13 2,159,930 Yushan District 3 3
340600 Huaibei city 2,740.91 1,970,265 Xiangshan District 3 1
340700 Tongling city 2,937.83 1,311,726 Tongguan District 3 1
340800 Anqing city 13,525.03 4,165,284 Yingjiang District 3 5 2
341000 Huangshan city 9,678.39 1,330,565 Tunxi District 3 4
341100 Chuzhou city 13,515.99 3,987,054 Langya District 2 4 2
341200 Fuyang city 10,118.17 8,200,264 Yingzhou District 3 4 1
341300 Suzhou city 9,938.77 5,324,476 Yongqiao District 1 4
341500 Lu'an city 15,450.82 4,393,699 Jin'an District 3 4
341600 Bozhou city 8,521.23 4,996,844 Qiaocheng District 1 3
341700 Chizhou city 8,364.81 1,342,764 Guichi District 1 3
341800 Xuancheng city 12,312.55 2,500,063 Xuanzhou District 1 4 2

These 16 prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 104 county-level divisions (45 districts, 9 county-level cities, and 50 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,512 township-level divisions (997 towns, 230 townships, 9 ethnic townships, and 276 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area District area City proper Census date
1 Hefei 3,098,727 3,310,268 7,457,027 2010-11-01
2 Huainan 1,238,488 1,666,826 3,342,012 2010-11-01
3 Wuhu 1,108,087 2,487,111 2,263,123 2010-11-01
4 Huaibei 854,696 1,113,321 2,114,276 2010-11-01
5 Bengbu 793,866 972,784 3,164,467 2010-11-01
6 Fuyang 780,522 1,768,947 7,599,913 2010-11-01
7 Suzhou 742,685 1,647,642 5,352,924 2010-11-01
8 Lu'an 661,217 1,644,344 4,603,585 2010-11-01
(8) Lu'an (new district) 134,239 134,239 see Lu'an 2010-11-01
9 Ma'anshan 657,847 741,531 2,304,774 2010-11-01
(9) Ma'anshan (new district) 169,888 169,888 see Ma'anshan 2010-11-01
10 Anqing 570,538 780,514 4,472,667 2010-11-01
11 Bozhou 474,318 1,409,436 4,850,657 2010-11-01
12 Tongling 438,981 474,363 1,562,670 2010-11-01
(13) Chaohu 404,789 780,711 see Hefei 2010-11-01
14 Chuzhou 392,461 562,321 3,937,868 2010-11-01
15 Tianchang 324,625 602,840 see Chuzhou 2010-11-01
16 Xuancheng 315,058 772,490 2,532,938 2010-11-01
17 Chizhou 289,122 595,268 1,402,518 2010-11-01
18 Huangshan 287,576 460,786 1,358,980 2010-11-01
19 Tongcheng 269,346 664,455 see Anqing 2010-11-01
20 Ningguo 231,090 376,857 see Xuancheng 2010-11-01
21 Jieshou 214,776 561,956 see Fuyang 2010-11-01
22 Mingguang 204,323 532,732 see Chuzhou 2010-11-01
(23) Qianshan 165,779 500,292 see Anqing 2010-11-01
  1. ^ UK: /ænˈhw/, US: /ɑːnˈhw/; ; formerly romanized as Anhwei
  2. ^ a b c d Chaohu PLC is currently no longer exist after census it was split among Hefei (Juchao & Lujiang), Wuhu (Wuwei), & Ma'anshan (Hexian & Hanshan); Juchao District is currently known as Chaohu CLC. Chaohu PLC city proper count is reflected among the three PLCs.
  3. ^ a b Shouxian County was transferred from Lu'an PLC to Huainan PLC's jurisdiction after census; the City proper count is reflected onto Huainan PLC not Lu'an PLC.
  4. ^ a b New district established after census: Yeji by splitting from parts of Huoqiu County. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after census: Bowang by splitting from parts of Dangtu County. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. ^ a b Zongyang County was transferred from Anqing PLC to Tongling PLC's jurisdiction after census; the City proper count is reflected onto Tongling PLC not Anqing PLC.
  7. ^ Qianshan County is currently known as Qianshan CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Anhui
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population
Rank Municipal pop. Rank Municipal pop.
Hefei
Hefei
Wuhu
Wuhu
1 Hefei 4,292,400 11 Tongling 535,300 Huainan
Huainan
Bengbu
Bengbu
2 Wuhu 1,536,700 12 Chuzhou 507,600
3 Huainan 1,178,200 13 Huangshan 406,100
4 Bengbu 961,100 14 Bozhou 365,000
5 Fuyang 907,400 15 Xuancheng 357,700
6 Huaibei 762,500 16 Chaohu 357,000
7 Ma'anshan 752,500 17 Chizhou 310,100
8 Anqing 631,500 18 Tianchang 196,600
9 Lu'an 607,500 19 Jieshou 188,600
10 Suzhou 578,600 20 Mingguang 186,000

Government

The Politics of Anhui Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Anhui (安徽省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the Anhui Provincial People's Government. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Anhui Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary (安徽省委书记), colloquially termed the "Anhui Party Chief".

Most provincial government departments and the Governor office are located at No.1 Zhongshan Road, moved from old downtown of Hefei since 2016. Provincial government is responsible to manage 16 prefecture-level cities, 105 counties, 1845 townships and different departments in Anhui. The Anhui Provincial People's Congress is just located near provincial government. The Provincial Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is located at No.317, Suzhou Road. The Provincial Higher People's Court is located at no. 472 Changjiang Rd.

Typically, annual provincial congress meeting is held in the first quarter of each year shortly before national congress meeting and the annual meeting of CPPCC is held in the first quarter or the fourth quarter of each year.

Economy

Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones. To the north of the Huai River, wheat and sweet potatoes are grown, while to the south it is rice and wheat instead. As of 2022, Anhui's nominal GDP was US$670 billion (CN¥ 4.51 trilion), about 3.72% of the country's GDP and ranked 10th among province-level administrative units; the province's primary, secondary and tertiary industries were worth CN¥351.37 billion (US$52.24 billion), CN¥1.8588 trillion (US$276.36 billion) and CN¥2.29433 trillion (US$341.1 billion) respectively. Its nominal GDP per capita was US$10,943 (CN¥73,603) and ranked the 14th in the country.

Natural resources of Anhui include iron in Ma'anshan, coal in Huainan, and copper in Tongling. There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company Chery, which is based in Wuhu.

Farmlands of Anhui

Compared to its more prosperous neighbours to the east, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, Anhui has lagged markedly behind in economic development, with a GDP per capita around half of those two provinces in 2017 rapidly improved from 1/3 of those two provinces in 2010. However, the provincial GDP per capita is based on the population registered in the province (that is, with local Hukou), but not necessarily residing there. There is significant regional disparity, where much of the wealth is concentrated in industrial regions close to the Yangtze River, such as Hefei, Wuhu, and Ma'anshan. The province is home to a large cluster of white goods manufacture such as Haier, Hisense, Whirlpool, Gree, Royalstar, and Meling.

Major economic and technological development zones

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone is located in the southwest of Hefei and was established in 1993. It is located close to Hefei Luogang International Airport.

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in October 1990 and approved by the State Council as a state-level Development Zone in March 1991. In 1997, the Development Zone was ratified as an APEC Science and Technology Industrial Park, with special open policies to APEC and EU members. Hefei High Tech Park was also approved as a National High Tech Export Base in 2000 and obtained the award of an Advanced High Tech Zone under the Torch Program in 2003. So far, more than 100 hi-tech enterprises have entered the zone. Industries encouraged in the zone include chemical production and processing, electronics assembly & manufacturing, instruments & industrial equipment, medical Equipment and telecommunications.

Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in 1993, Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone was the first state-level development zone approved by central government in Anhui, utilising the transportation advantage of the Yangtse Delta at Wuhu.

Wuhu Export Processing Zone

Wuhu Export Processing Zone was approved to be a national level export processing zone, with a total planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi).

Transportation

A high-speed train in Hefei railway station
Hefei South Railway Station
a metro entrance in Hefei

Historically, Anhui's transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Anhui, the Tongling Yangtze River Bridge, was completed in 1995. As of October 2014, Anhui had four bridges across the Yangtze, at Ma'anshan, Wuhu, Tongling, and Anqing.

Rail

Anhui lacked a developed railway network until this century: most cities are now connected by a high-speed train system. Hefei South railway station is the high-speed train hub.

Highway system

The province set an ambitious plan from 2015 to 2025 for highways including:

G3 Beijing-Taipei Expressway

G40 Shanghai-Xi'an Expressway

G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway

S24 Changshu-Hefei Expressway

Subway

Hefei and Wuhu have subway systems. The Hefei Metro has 2 completed lines, 3 lines under construction and another 10 lines planned. The Wuhu Metro has 2 subway lines under construction and another 3 lines planned.

Aviation

The province has 5 major commercial airports and another 4 are under construction. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport and Huangshan International Airport are the 2 international airports. The 5 airports in operation are:

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 16,229,000—    
1928 21,715,000+33.8%
1936–37 23,354,000+7.5%
1947 22,462,000−3.8%
1954 30,343,637+35.1%
1964 31,241,657+3.0%
1982 49,665,724+59.0%
1990 56,180,813+13.1%
2000 58,999,948+5.0%
2010 59,500,510+0.8%
2020 61,027,171+2.6%

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population. The Hui and She are the two largest minorities.

Anhui has a highly unbalanced gender ratio. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are 138 boys for every 100 girls, making it among the most unbalanced of provinces in China.

Religion

Religion in Anhui[note 1]

  Islam (0.58%)
  Christianity (5.30%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (89.48%)

The predominant religions in Anhui are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 4.64% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 5.30% of the population identifies as Christian. According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute 0.58% of the population of Anhui.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 89.48% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects.

Avalokitesvara of One Thousand Arms at the Guanyin Nunnery.
Langya Buddhist Temple in Chuzhou, Anhui
The Qingyun Street Mosque in Fuyang, Anhui
Courtyard of a Buddhist temple in Qingyang County, Anhui
Xiyan Temple

Culture

Anhui spans many geographical and cultural regions. The northern, flatter parts of the province, along the Huai River and further north, are most akin to neighboring provinces like Henan, Shandong and northern Jiangsu. In contrast, the southern, hilly parts of the province are more similar in culture and dialect to other southern, hilly provinces, like Zhejiang and Jiangxi.

Mandarin dialects are spoken over the northern and central parts of the province, north of the Yangtze river. Dialects to the north (e.g. Bengbu dialect) are classified as Zhongyuan Mandarin, together with dialects in provinces such as Henan and Shandong; dialects in the central parts (e.g. Hefei dialect) are classified as Jianghuai Mandarin, together with dialects in the central parts of neighboring Jiangsu province. Non-Mandarin dialects are spoken to the south of the Yangzi: dialects of Wu are spoken in Xuancheng prefecture-level city, though these are rapidly being replaced by Jianghuai Mandarin; dialects of Gan are spoken in a few counties in the southwest bordering Jiangxi province; and the Huizhou dialects are spoken in about ten counties in the far south, a small but highly diverse and unique group of Chinese dialects.

Huangmeixi, which originated in the environs of Anqing in southwestern Anhui, is a form of traditional Chinese opera popular across China. Huiju, a form of traditional opera originating in the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, is one of the major precursors of Beijing Opera; in the 1950s, Huiju (which had disappeared) was revived. Luju is a type of traditional opera found across central Anhui, from east to west.

Anhui cuisine is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. Combining elements of cooking from northern Anhui, south-central Anhui, and the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, Anhui cuisine is known for its use of wild game and herbs, both land and sea, and comparatively simple methods of preparation.

Anhui has a high concentration of traditional products related to calligraphy: Xuanzhou (today Xuancheng) and Huizhou (today Huangshan City) are revered for producing Xuan Paper and Hui Ink, respectively, which are traditionally considered the best types of paper and ink for Chinese calligraphy. She County is famous for the She Inkstone, one of the most preferred types of inkstones (a required tool in traditional calligraphy). [citation needed]

Education

University of Science and Technology of China
Main Campus of Hefei University of Technology
East Campus of University of Science and Technology of China

Anhui has some good universities. Most universities in Anhui are located in Hefei, Wuhu, Bengbu, Maanshan, some of them are pretty well known. Specifically, Hefei is one of the most important research central cities in China with leading basic scientific research capability.

Public universities

Military universities

  • National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) - Hefei Campus
  • PLA Artillery University
  • PLA Armoured Force University
  • PLA Vehicle University
  • PLA Air Force Flight Academy(13th)
  • Armed Police Command College(Hefei)

Tourism

Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun.

Anhui's principal tourism sites include the following:

Development

In 2008, France helped the Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau develop a rural tourism demonstration project.

Notable people

  • Xia Jun, economist, telecom researcher and university professor
  • Qiu Jianliang, professional kickboxer
  • Fang Bian, sanshou fighter and professional kickboxer
  • Ouyang Feng, sanshou fighter and professional kickboxer

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.
  2. ^ This may include:

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