In this article we will explore Hubei and its impact on modern society. Hubei is a topic that has captured the attention of academics, professionals and the general public in recent years. Its relevance ranges from political and economic aspects to social and cultural issues. Furthermore, Hubei has generated debate and controversy among different interest groups, making it a topic of great interest for discussion and analysis. Through this article, we will delve into the complexity of Hubei and its implications, with the aim of offering a comprehensive vision of this topic that is so relevant today.

Province of Hubei
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese湖北省 (Húběi Shěng)
 • AbbreviationHB / (pinyin: È)
(clockwise from top)
Map showing the location of Hubei Province
Map showing the location of Hubei Province
Coordinates: 31°12′N 112°18′E / 31.2°N 112.3°E / 31.2; 112.3
Named for —"lake"
"north of the (Dongting) Lake"
(and largest city)
Divisions13 prefectures, 102 counties, 1235 townships
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyHubei Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWang Menghui
 • Congress directorWang Menghui
 • GovernorWang Zhonglin
 • CPPCC chairmanSun Wei
 • Total185,900 km2 (71,800 sq mi)
 • Rank13th
Highest elevation3,105 m (10,187 ft)
 • Total58,300,000
 • Rank10th
 • Density310/km2 (810/sq mi)
  • Rank12th
 • Ethnic compositionHan: 95.6%
Tujia: 3.7%
Miao: 0.4%
 • Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, Gan, Xiang
GDP (2023)
 • TotalCN¥ 5,580 billion (7th)
US$ 792 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 95,538 (9th)
US$ 13,558
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB
HDI (2021)0.775 (high) (9th)
(Simplified Chinese)
"Hubei" in Chinese characters
Literal meaning"North of the (Dongting) Lake"

Hubei is an inland province of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Hubei's name is officially abbreviated to "" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty of c. 1045–771 BCE; a popular name for Hubei is "" (Chǔ) (suggested by that of the powerful State of Chu, which existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty of 770 – 256 BCE). Hubei borders the provinces of Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province.

Hubei is the 7th-largest provincial economy of China, the second largest in the Central China region, the third largest in the South Central China region and the third largest among inland provinces. As of 2021, Hubei's nominal GDP was US$787 billion (CNY 5 trillion) and its GDP (nominal) per capita exceeded US$13,000, making it the richest landlocked province, the richest province in the Central China region, and 2nd richest province in South Central China region after Guangdong.


The Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. By the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei formed part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu, nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but Chu also represented a culturally unique blend of northern and southern culture, and it developed into a powerful state that controlled much of the middle and lower Yangtze River, with its power extending northwards into the North China Plain.

Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Jiangling County, Hubei

During the Warring States period (475–221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest (in present-day Guanzhong, Shaanxi province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards during Qin's wars of uniting China.

Qin founded the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the first unified dynasty in China. The Qin dynasty was succeeded in 206 BC by the Han dynasty, which established the province (zhou) of Jingzhou in today's Hubei and Hunan. The Qin and Han played an active role in the extension of farmland in Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farms from summer floods. Towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death in 208, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs (208 or 209), warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan drove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou and appointed Guan Yu as administrator of Xiangyang (in modern Xiangyang, Hubei) to guard Jing province; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors.

Three Gorges area

The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century (Five Barbarians' rebellion and Disaster of Yongjia (永嘉之乱)) began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the south, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, and later on the Tang dynasty placed present-day Hubei under the jurisdiction of several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south; Shannandong Circuit (山南东道) in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the early 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Yang Wu and its successor Southern Tang to the east, the Five Dynasties to the north and Shu to Shizhou (施州, in modern Enshi, Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture).[citation needed]

The Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi.[citation needed] During the Mongol rule, in 1331, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, which reached England, Belgium, and Italy by June 1348, and which, according to Chinese sources, spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.

The Ming dynasty (1368–1644) drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. Hubei lay geographically outside the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng. The Manchu Qing dynasty which took control of much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, however, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known viceroys being Zhang Zhidong (in office between 1889 and 1907), whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially Wuhan) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.[citation needed]

In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan. The uprising started the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei; this government later merged into Chiang Kai-shek's government in Nanjing. During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan, while the western parts remained under Chinese control.[citation needed]

During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution.

As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, the Xianning prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military-command headquarters.

Yellow Crane Tower

The province—and Wuhan in particular—suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River Floods. Large-scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River near Yichang started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.[citation needed]

The Xianning Nuclear Power Plant is planned in Dafanzhen, Tongshan County, Xianning, to host at least four 1,250-megawatt (MW) AP1000 pressurized-water reactors. Work on the site began in 2010; plans envisaged that the first reactor would start construction in 2011 and go online in 2015. However, construction of the first phase had yet to start as of 2018.[citation needed]

On 1 December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 in the COVID-19 pandemic was identified in the city of Wuhan. In January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was officially identified, leading local and federal governments to implement massive quarantine zones across Hubei province, especially in the capital Wuhan (the epicenter of the outbreak). Authorities partially or fully locked down 15 cities, directly affecting 57 million people. Following severe outbreaks in numerous other countries, including in different areas of the world, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020. However, after more than eight weeks, the lockdown on most cities in the province was lifted.[citation needed]


Wudang Mountains in Danjiangkou, Hubei

The Jianghan Plain takes up most of central and southern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountainous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains, the Jing Mountains, the Daba Mountains, and the Wu Mountains (in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountains lie to the northeast of the Jianghan Plain, on the border with Henan and Anhui; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with Henan; to the southeast, the Mufu Mountains form the border with Jiangxi. The highest peak in Hubei is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountains of the forestry area of Shennongjia; it has an altitude of 3105 m.

Qing River in Changyang Tujia Autonomous County, southwestern Hubei

The two major rivers of Hubei are the Yangtze River and its left tributary, the Han River; they lend their names to the Jianghan Plain – Jiang representing the Yangtze and han representing the Han River. The Yangtze River enters Hubei from the west via the Three Gorges; the eastern half of the Three Gorges (Xiling Gorge and part of Wu Gorge) lie in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring Chongqing. The Han River enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at the center of Wuhan, the provincial capital.

Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze within the province are the Shen Nong Stream (a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam project); the Qing, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo near Yichang; and the Fushui River in the southeast.[citation needed]

Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei the name of "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Liangzi Lake and Hong Lake. The numerous hydrodams have created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River, on the border between Hubei and Henan.[citation needed]

Hubei has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa or Cwa under the Köppen climate classification), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold, with average temperatures of 1 to 6 °C (34 to 43 °F) in January, while summers are hot and humid, with average temperatures of 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F) in July; punishing temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or above are widely associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular Shennongjia, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan and other lowland cities.[citation needed]

Besides the capital Wuhan, other important cities are Jingmen; Shiyan, a center of automotive industry and the gateway to the Wudang Mountains; Yichang, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions

Hubei is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level cities (all sub-prefecture-level cities) and one directly administered county-level forestry area. At the end of 2017, the total population is 59.02 million.

Administrative divisions of Hubei
Division code Division Area in km2 Population 2010 Seat Divisions
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities*
420000 Hubei Province 185,900.00 57,237,740 Wuhan city 39 35 2 27
420100 Wuhan city 8,549.09 9,785,392 Jiang'an District 13
420200 Huangshi city 4,582.85 2,429,318 Xialu District 4 1 1
420300 Shiyan city 23,674.41 3,340,843 Maojian District 3 4 1
420500 Yichang city 21,227.00 4,059,686 Xiling District 5 3 2 3
420600 Xiangyang city 19,724.41 5,500,307 Xiangcheng District 3 3 3
420700 Ezhou city 1,593.54 1,048,672 Echeng District 3
420800 Jingmen city 12,192.57 2,873,687 Dongbao District 2 1 2
420900 Xiaogan city 8,922.72 4,814,542 Xiaonan District 1 3 3
421000 Jingzhou city 14,068.68 5,691,707 Shashi District 2 2 4
421100 Huanggang city 17,446.63 6,162,072 Huangzhou District 1 7 2
421200 Xianning city 9,749.84 2,462,583 Xian'an District 1 4 1
421300 Suizhou city 9,614.94 2,162,222 Zengdu District 1 1 1
422800 Enshi Autonomous Prefecture 24,061.25 3,290,294 Enshi city 6 2
429004 Xiantao city** 2,538.00 1,175,085 Shazui Subdistrict 1
429005 Qianjiang city** 2,004.00 946,277 Yuanlin Subdistrict 1
429006 Tianmen city** 2,622.00 1,418,913 Jingling Subdistrict 1
429021 Shennongjia Forestry District ** 3,253.00 76,140 Songbai town 1

* - including Forestry district
** - Directly administered county-level divisions

The thirteen Prefecture and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 103 county-level divisions (39 districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 counties, 2 autonomous counties, 1 forestry district; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistricts).[citation needed]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area District area City proper Census date
1 Wuhan 7,541,527 9,785,388 9,785,388 2010-11-01
2 Xiangyang 1,433,057 2,199,690 5,500,307 2010-11-01
3 Yichang 1,049,363 1,411,380 4,059,686 2010-11-01
4 Jingzhou 904,157 1,154,086 5,691,707 2010-11-01
5 Shiyan 724,016 767,920 3,340,841 2010-11-01
(5) Shiyan (new district) 173,085 558,355 see Shiyan 2010-11-01
6 Huangshi 691,963 691,963 2,429,318 2010-11-01
7 Tianmen 612,515 1,418,913 1,418,913 2010-11-01
8 Ezhou 607,739 1,048,668 1,048,668 2010-11-01
9 Xiaogan 582,403 908,266 4,814,542 2010-11-01
10 Xiantao 553,029 1,175,085 1,175,085 2010-11-01
11 Hanchuan 468,868 1,015,507 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
12 Daye 449,998 909,724 see Huangshi 2010-11-01
13 Zaoyang 442,367 1,004,741 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
14 Zhongxiang 439,019 1,022,514 see Jingmen 2010-11-01
15 Qianjiang 437,757 946,277 946,277 2010-11-01
16 Jingmen 426,119 632,954 2,873,687 2010-11-01
17 Suizhou 393,173 618,582 2,162,222 2010-11-01
18 Xianning 340,723 512,517 2,462,583 2010-11-01
19 Enshi 320,107 749,574 part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
20 Macheng 302,671 849,090 see Huanggang 2010-11-01
21 Yingcheng 302,026 593,812 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
22 Honghu 278,685 819,446 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
23 Guangshui 272,402 755,910 see Suizhou 2010-11-01
24 Songzi 271,514 765,911 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
25 Wuxue 270,882 644,247 see Huanggang 2010-11-01
26 Huanggang 267,860 366,769 6,162,069 2010-11-01
(27) Jingshan 266,341 636,776 see Jingmen 2010-11-01
28 Anlu 237,409 568,590 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
29 Zhijiang 218,396 495,995 see Yichang 2010-11-01
30 Shishou 213,851 577,022 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
31 Laohekou 212,645 471,482 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
32 Chibi 202,542 478,410 see Xianning 2010-11-01
33 Yicheng 201,945 512,530 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
34 Lichuan 195,749 654,094 part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
35 Danjiangkou 190,021 443,755 see Shiyan 2010-11-01
36 Dangyang 183,823 468,293 see Yichang 2010-11-01
37 Yidu 176,233 384,598 see Yichang 2010-11-01
  1. ^ /hˈb/ hoo-BAY; Chinese: 湖北
  2. ^ Formerly known as Xiangfan PLC until 2 December 2010.
  3. ^ a b New district established after census: Yunyang (Yunxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ Jingshan County is currently known as Jingshan CLC after census.
Most populous cities in Hubei
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population
Rank Municipal pop. Rank Municipal pop.
1 Wuhan 9,180,000 11 Qianjiang 437,400 Yichang
2 Xiangyang 1,325,700 12 Xianning 413,200
3 Yichang 931,300 13 Xiantao 405,000
4 Jingzhou 870,500 14 Hanchuan 345,900
5 Huangshi 859,900 15 Huanggang 338,000
6 Shiyan 734,400 16 Zaoyang 320,000
7 Xiaogan 573,800 17 Guangshui 319,300
8 Jingmen 571,700 18 Daye 303,900
9 Suizhou 502,500 19 Tianmen 299,200
10 Ezhou 459,700 20 Wuxue 293,000

Government and politics

Secretaries of the Chinese Communist Party Hubei Committee:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949–1954
  2. Wang Renzhong (王任重): 1954–1966
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1966–1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1970–1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973–1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978–1982
  7. Guan Guangfu (关广富): 1983–1994
  8. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1994–2001
  9. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 2001
  10. Yu Zhengsheng (俞正声): 2001–2007
  11. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2007–2011
  12. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2011–2016
  13. Jiang Chaoliang (蒋超良): 2016–2020
  14. Ying Yong (应勇): 2020–2022
  15. Wang Menghui (王蒙徽): 2022–present

Governors of Hubei:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949–1954
  2. Liu Zihou (刘子厚): 1954–1956
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1956–1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1968–1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973–1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978–1980
  7. Han Ningfu (韩宁夫): 1980–1982
  8. Huang Zhizhen (黄知真): 1982–1986
  9. Guo Zhenqian (郭振乾): 1986–1990
  10. Guo Shuyan (郭树言): 1990–1993
  11. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1993–1995
  12. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 1995–2001
  13. Zhang Guoguang (张国光): 2001–2002
  14. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2002–2007
  15. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2007–2010
  16. Wang Guosheng (王国生): 2010–2016
  17. Wang Xiaodong (王晓东): 2016–2021
  18. Wang Zhonglin (王忠林): 2021–present


The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River

Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" (鱼米之乡). Important agricultural products in Hubei include cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities.

Mineral resources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, gold amalgam, manganese and vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coal stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.[citation needed]

Tea plantations on the western slopes of the Muyu Valley

Once completed, the Three Gorges Dam in western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui.

Hubei is the 7th-largest provincial economy of China, the second largest in the Central China region after Henan, the third largest in the South Central China region after Guangdong and Henan and the third largest among inland provinces after Henan and Sichuan. As of 2021, Hubei's nominal GDP was US$787 billion (CNY 5 trillion). Its GDP (nominal) per capita exceeded US$13,000, making it the richest landlocked province, the richest province in the Central China region, and 2nd richest province in South Central China region after Guangdong.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Hubei Jingzhou Chengnan Economic Development Zone was established in 1992 under the approval of Hubei Government. Three major industries include textile, petroleum and chemical processing, with a combined output accounts for 90% of its total output. The zone also enjoys a well-developed transportation network—only 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the airport and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the railway station.
  • Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.
  • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993. Its size is about 10-25 square km and it plans to expand to 25-50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include automobile production/assembly, biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, chemicals production and processing, food/beverage processing, heavy industry, and telecommunications equipment.
  • Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7 km2 (1.0 sq mi). The first 0.7 km2 (0.27 sq mi) area has been launched.
  • Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. The planned area is 0.67 km2 (0.26 sq mi) with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.
  • Xiangyang New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


Historical population
1912 29,590,000—    
1928 26,699,000−9.8%
1936-37 25,516,000−4.4%
1947 20,976,000−17.8%
1952 21,470,000+2.4%
1954 27,789,693+29.4%
1964 33,709,344+21.3%
1982 47,804,150+41.8%
1990 53,969,210+12.9%
2000 59,508,870+10.3%
2010 57,237,740−3.8%
2020 57,752,557+0.9%
Wuhan (Hankou) part of Hubei Province until 1927; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Hubei Province.

Han Chinese form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao and Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture.

On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei and Henan provinces that will be affected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han river. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project.


Religion in Hubei[note 1]

  Christianity (0.58%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (92.92%)

The predominant religions in Hubei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 6.5% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.58% of the population identifies as Christian, declining from 0.83% in 2004. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 92.92% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.


Hubei Provincial Museum
Hubei Museum of Art
Hubei Provincial Library

People in Hubei speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.[citation needed]

Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine is the Wuchang bream, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed.[citation needed]

Types of traditional Chinese opera popular in Hubei include Hanju and Chuju (楚剧; Chǔ Jù).

The Shennongjia area is the alleged home of the Yeren, a wild undiscovered hominid that lives in the forested hills.

The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine-headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei people." (天上九头鸟,地上湖北佬; Tiānshàng jiǔ tóu niǎo, dìshàng Húběi lǎo)

Wuhan is one of the major culture centers in China.

Hubei is thought to be the province that originated the card game of dou dizhu.


As of 2022, Hubei hosts 130 institutions of higher education, ranking sixth together with Hunan (130) among all Chinese provinces after Jiangsu (168), Guangdong (160), Henan (156), Shandong (153), and Sichuan (134). The Huazhong University of Science and Technology(HUST), Wuhan University and many other institutions in Wuhan make it a hub of higher education and research in China. Wuhan is the city that has the largest college student population in the world (1.3 million) studying in its 89 universities.


Garden At Huazhong Agricultural University


Boats on the Yangtze River in Wuhan

Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze and Hanshui Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role.

Historically, Hubei's overland transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Hubei, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in 1957, followed by the Zhicheng Bridge in 1971. As of October 2014, Hubei had 23 bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River, including nine bridges and three tunnels in Wuhan.


The railway from Beijing reached Wuhan in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway and Beijing–Kowloon railway, respectively, in the western and eastern part of the province.

The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large amount of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, it was subsequently extended to the north, to Beijing becoming the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway. An east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze, the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway was gradually opened between 2008 and 2012, the Wuhan–Yichang railway section of it opening in 2012. The Wuhan–Xiaogan intercity railway was opened in December 2016 and it was extended when the Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway opened in November 2019.


Hubei's main airport is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges region. There are also passenger airports in Xiangyang, Enshi, and Jingzhou (Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District).


The province's best-known natural attraction (shared with the adjacent Chongqing municipality) is the scenic area of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze from Yichang through the Three Gorges and into the neighboring Chongqing municipality.

The mountains of western Hubei, in particular in Shennongjia District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu in the southern part of Shennongjia, the gateway to Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (神农架国家自然保护区). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (Jiugongshan) national park, in Tongshan County near the border with Jiangxi.

A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang (Wudangshan) in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the Ming dynasty, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO since 1994 as a World Heritage Site.

Other historic attractions in Hubei include:

East side of Jingzhou old city wall

The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the Wuchang Uprising Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in Xianning, and the National Mining Park (国家矿山公园) in Huangshi.


University Stadium of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan

Professional sports teams in Hubei include:

Sister State/Twinning

Following a July 1979 State of Ohio Trade Mission to China, Hubei and Ohio formed a sister province-state relationship.: 111–113  The pairing was based on the fact that both Hubei and Ohio are located in national heartlands, are large industrial areas and transportation hubs, and have significant agricultural sectors.: 113 

In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark county of Norway, and a "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007.

See also


  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:



  1. ^ "Hubei--Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018. Hubei {...} an area of 185,900 square km.
  2. ^ 湖北 (in Chinese). The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 全省国土总面积18.59万平方公里
  3. ^ "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  4. ^ "zh: 2023年湖北省国民经济和社会发展统计公报". March 27, 2024. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 2024-01-30.
  6. ^ "Hubei". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021.
  7. ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, People's Daily Online.
  8. ^ a b "Decoding China's 2021 GDP Growth Rate: A Look at Regional Numbers". China Briefing News. 2022-02-07. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  9. ^ Zhang, Chi (張弛) (2013). "The Qujialing-Shijiahe Culture in the Middle Yangzi River Valley". In Anne P. Underhill (ed.). A Companion to Chinese Archaeology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 510–34. doi:10.1002/9781118325698. ISBN 9781444335293.
  10. ^ Flad, Rowan K.; Chen, Pochan (2013). Ancient Central China: Centers and Peripheries along the Yangzi River. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521727662.
  11. ^ Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, eds. Defining Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China, (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999); Lothar von Falkenhausen, Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius (1000–250 BC): The Archaeological Evidence (Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2006), 262–88.
  12. ^ 韩非子·初见秦》:秦与荆人战,大破荆,袭郢,取洞庭、五渚、江南。荆王君臣亡走,东服于陈。
  13. ^ 史记·卷七十三·白起王翦列传》:其明年,攻楚,拔郢,烧夷陵,遂东至竟陵。楚王亡去郢,东走徙陈。
  14. ^ 史记·卷七十三·白起王翦列传》:王翦果代李信击荆。荆闻王翦益军而来,乃悉国中兵以拒秦。王翦至,坚壁而守之,不肯战。荆兵数出挑战,终不出。王翦日休士洗沐,而善饮食抚循之,亲与士卒同食。久之,王翦使人问军中戏乎?对曰:“方投石超距。”于是王翦曰:“士卒可用矣。”荆数挑战而秦不出,乃引而东。翦因举兵追之,令壮士击,大破荆军。至蕲南,杀其将军项燕,荆兵遂败走。秦因乘胜略定荆地城邑。岁馀,虏荆王负刍,竟平荆地为郡县。。
  15. ^ Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362.
  16. ^ 三国志·吴书·卷54/周瑜鲁肃吕蒙传·吕蒙传》:蒙入据城,尽得羽及将士家属,皆抚慰,约令军中不得干历人家,有所求取。蒙麾下士,是汝南人,取民家一笠,以覆官铠,官铠虽公,蒙犹以为犯军令,不可以乡里故而废法,遂垂涕斩之。于是军中震栗,道不拾遗。蒙旦暮使亲近存恤耆老,问所不足,疾病者给医药,饥寒者赐衣粮。羽府藏财宝,皆封闭以待权至。羽还,在道路,数使人与蒙相闻,蒙辄厚遇其使,周游城中,家家致问,或手书示信。羽人还,私相参讯,咸知家门无恙,见待过于平时,故羽吏士无鬬心。会权寻至,羽自知孤穷,乃走麦城,西至漳乡,众皆委羽而降。权使朱然、潘璋断其径路,即父子俱获,荆州遂定。
  17. ^ "湖北省情概况·历史沿革". HuBei China (HuBei Government's official website) (in Simplified Chinese). 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  18. ^ Benedict, C.A. (1996). Bubonic Plague in Nineteenth-century China. Vol. 14. Stanford University Press. pp. 107–155. doi:10.1177/009770048801400201. ISBN 9780804726610. PMID 11620272. S2CID 220733020. Retrieved 2016-01-05. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  19. ^ Thomas W. Robinson (1971). "The Wuhan Incident: Local Strife and Provincial Rebellion During the Cultural Revolution". The China Quarterly (47): 413–18. JSTOR 652320.
  20. ^ 神秘131工程:60年代修建的防核地下指挥部 [Mysterious Project 131: An underground nuclear command headquarters constructed in the 1960s]. (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  21. ^ UNEP-WCMC (2017-05-22). "Hubei Shennongjia". World Heritage Datasheet. Retrieved 2024-01-25.
  22. ^ 中国统计年鉴—2018. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019.
  23. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Simplified Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  24. ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  25. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  26. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  27. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  28. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2019). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2018 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House.
  29. ^ "Coronavirus: Beijing's purge over virus takes down top Communist Party officials in Hubei". 13 February 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
  30. ^ "China Economy @ China Perspective". Archived from the original on 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
  31. ^ " | Hubei Jingzhou Chengnan Economic Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  32. ^ " | Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2015-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  33. ^ " | Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone". Archived from the original on May 26, 2015.
  34. ^ " | Wuhan Export Processing Zone". Archived from the original on May 26, 2015.
  35. ^ " | Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park". Archived from the original on 2015-01-11. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  36. ^ 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  37. ^ 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  38. ^ 1936-37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  39. ^ 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  40. ^ Joseph Laffan Morse, ed. (1955). The Universal Standard Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Unicorn Publishers Inc. p. 4482. pop. (1952 est.) 21,470,000.
  41. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  42. ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.
  43. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  44. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.
  45. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
  46. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.
  47. ^ China to resettle 330,000 people The Philadelphia Inquirer Archived 2009-10-21 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ "全国普通高等学校名单 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  50. ^ "全国高等学校名单 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  51. ^ 汉宜高铁拟本月开通 届时每日将开行20对列车 (in Chinese). 10 May 2012.
  52. ^ 武孝城际铁路正式开通 市民可以坐城铁赶飞机 [Wuhan–Xiaogan intercity railway officially opens; city residents can take the line to catch flights]. Hubei (in Chinese). 2016-12-01.
  53. ^ "Wuhan – Shiyan high speed line opens". Railway Gazette International. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  54. ^ Eric N. Danielson, "The Ming Ancestor Tomb Archived 2014-12-30 at the Wayback Machine"
  55. ^ "Mining for tourism in Hubei" Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, By Li Jing (China Daily). Updated: 2008-09-22
  56. ^ a b Lampton, David M. (2024). Living U.S.-China relations: From Cold War to Cold War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-8725-8.


External links