Lijiang

In this article we will delve into the fascinating world of Lijiang, exploring its origins, its relevance in today's society and its impact on different areas of life. Lijiang has been the subject of interest and debate throughout history, motivating philosophers, scientists, artists and people from all walks of life to delve deeper into its meaning and repercussions. Through a detailed analysis, we will examine the most relevant aspects of Lijiang, from its first manifestations to its presence today, with the aim of providing a comprehensive and enriching vision of this diverse and exciting topic.

Lijiang
丽江市
Likiang
Location of Lijiang City jurisdiction in Yunnan
Location of Lijiang City jurisdiction in Yunnan
Lijiang is located in China
Lijiang
Lijiang
Location in China
Coordinates (Lijiang municipal government): 26°51′19″N 100°13′33″E / 26.8552°N 100.2259°E / 26.8552; 100.2259
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceYunnan
Admin HQGucheng
Area
 • Prefecture-level city20,557 km2 (7,937 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,264 km2 (488 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,264 km2 (488 sq mi)
Elevation
2,400 m (7,900 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)
 • Prefecture-level city1,253,878
 • Density61/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Urban
288,787
 • Urban density230/km2 (590/sq mi)
 • Metro
288,787
 • Metro density230/km2 (590/sq mi)
GDP
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 62 billion
US$ 9.1 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 49,768
US$ 7,340
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
674100
Area code0888
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN-07
Licence plate prefixes云P
Websitelijiang.gov.cn
Lijiang
"Lijiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese丽江
Traditional Chinese麗江

Lijiang (Chinese: 丽江), formerly romanized as Likiang, is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Yunnan Province, China. It has an area of 21,219 square kilometres (8,193 sq mi) and had a population of 1,253,878 at the 2020 census whom 288,787 lived in the built-up area (metro) made of Gucheng District. Lijiang is famous for its UNESCO Heritage Site, the Old Town of Lijiang, which contains a mixture of different historical architecture styles and a complex, ancient water-supply system.and borders Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Panzhihua City in Sichuan Province to the east. It has one municipality and four counties.

Lijiang City is located in Yungui Plateau and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is one of the key forest areas in Yunnan Province and one of the west and east power transmission bases of China's hydropower industry. Lijiang City is a multi-ethnic settlement, except for the Han nationality, there are a total of 22 ethnic minorities.

Lijiang is the only prefecture-level city with three World Heritage Sites, rich in tourism resources, 104 tourist attractions, such as Lijiang Ancient City, Yulong Snow Mountain, Tiger Leaping Gorge, Laojun Mountain, and Shuhe Ancient Town.

History

Qing dynasty buildings around the Black Dragon Pool with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in the background.

As far back as 100,000 years ago, people of the late Paleolithic were active in what is now Lijiang. The discovery of cave paintings in the Jinsha River Valley along with numerous neolithic stone tools and later artifacts of Bronze and Iron Age provenance prove Lijiang to have been one of the most important centres of ancient human activity in southwest China.

Warring States period, it belonged to the Shu Prefecture of the Qin state. At the end of the Warring States period, it was part of the territory of the Dian Kingdom.

Han Dynasty, the Dian Kingdom submitted to the Han, and today's Lijiang City belonged to the Yuezhi Commandery, known as Suijiu County.

Three Kingdoms, it was part of the Yunnan Prefecture.

Northern and Southern Dynasties, Lijiang still belonged th the Yunnan Prefecture, known as Suijiu County, and it was aeound of the Naxi people migrated here.

Tang Dynasty, it was once the territory of the Yaozhou Governor's Office, later it became part of the Tibetan Empire, and the territory of Nanzhao,known as Sangchuan, under the jurisdiction of the Jianchuan Military Commission.

The Baisha Old Town was the political, commercial and cultural center for the local Naxi people and other ethnic groups for 450 years from the year 658 AD to 1107AD. The Dabaoji Palace of the Baisha Fresco, very close to the Baisha Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute, was built in the year 658 AD in the Tang dynasty (618 AD to 907 AD).

In ancient times, the Baisha Old Town used to be the center of silk embroidery in the southwest of China and the most important place of the Ancient Southern Silk Road, also called the Ancient Tea and Horse Road or Ancient tea route. The Ancient Southern Silk Road started from Burma, crossed Lijiang, Shangri-La County, Tibet, continued through Iran, the Fertile Crescent before finally reaching the Mediterranean Sea.

The Kingdom of Lijiang submitted to Khubilai Khan as he led his troops against the Dali kingdom in 1253. Though the kingdom was incorporated into the Mongol empire then the Yuan dynasty, it was given the status of tusi, or indigenous office, which gave autonomy to the local Naxi rulers. During the Ming dynasty, the Naxi were one of the few border peoples to support the Ming immediately. As the Naxi helped the Ming expand in Southwest China the ruler family was given the title of Mu. During this period the Kingdom of Lijiang was able to expand into Sichuan and Tibet bringing many Tibetan peoples into its territory as well as their cultural and religious influence. It was under the rule of the Naxi ruling house of the Mu family (木氏) during the Yuan (not yet named Mu), Ming, and Qing dynasties. The Mu "held this position until 1723, when Lijiang became directly incorporated under the authority of the Qing central government."

15th year of the Ming Dynasty's Hongwu Emperor's reign(1382), A Jia A De, the local chief of Lijiang, "led the people to submit," and the Lijiang Lu XuanfuSi(Lijiang Road's pacification commissioner's office) was restrustured into the Lijiang Prefecture. By the 30th year of the Hongwu Emperor(1397), it was promoted to the Lijiang Junmin Fu(Lijiang Military and Civil Administration), which governed over four states, one county, and one patrol inspection office:Tong'an State, Baoshan State, Ju Jin State, Lin Xi county, and Shimen pass patrol Inspection office.

In the 17th year of the Qing Dynasty's Shunzhi Emperor's reign(1660), the Lijiang JunminFu was established again, with the Mu family continuing to hold the hereditary position of the chief. In the first year of the Yongzheng Emperor's reign(1723), the implemented the "reform of the native chieftain system" in Lijiang, replacing the hereditary chief with an appointed official from the court, and demoting the Mu family to the position of the Qianlong Emperor's reign(1770), Lijiang County was established.

In the second year of the Republic of China (1912), the Lijiang Prefecture was abolished, retaining only the county, and the county government moved into the former Lijiang Prefecture's office building.

In the 20th year of the Republic of China (1931), three counties were established within the current area of Lijiang: Lijiang, Yongbei, and Huaping.

In 2002 Lijiang City was established, replacing the former Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County.

Geography and climate

Geography

Baoshan, a village in Yulong County

Lijiang is located in the northwestern portion of Yunnan and borders Sichuan. It is within the region encompassed by the Hengduan Mountains, where the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau converge. It borders Sichuan Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Panzhihua City to the east, and Jianchuan, Heqing and Binchuan three of the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the south. County and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture Dayao and Yongren counties, west and north are adjacent to Lanping County of Nujiang Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Weixi County of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The city has a total area of 20,600 square kilometers and governs the ancient city, Yulong Naxi Autonomous County, Yongsheng County, Huaping County and Ninglang Yi Autonomous County.

Lijiang City has a terrain that is higher in the northwest and lower in the southeast. The highest point is the main peak of Yulong Snow Mountain, with an elevation of 5,596 meters, and the lowest point is at the mouth of the Tangba River in Shilongba Township, Huaping County, with an elevation of 1,015 meters, resulting in a maximum elevation difference of 4,581 meters. To the west of Yulong Mountain lies the high mountain and gorge sub-region of the Hengduan Mountain Range, characterized by high mountains and deep valleys, with steep and towering mountain ranges and rivers cutting deeply through them. To the east of Yulong Mountain is part of the Dianxi Basin's mountainous plateau region, specifically the northwestern sub-region of the Dian Plateau, which has a higher elevation and more robust mountainous terrain. On both sides of the main mountain range, there are also extensive east-west oriented valleys, creating a complex and intricate landscape of landforms with undulating terrain and a significant difference in elevation. There are 111 large and small basins scattered among the mountain ranges, generally at an elevation of over 2,000 meters, with the Lijiang Basin being the largest, covering an area of about 200 square kilometers and an average elevation of 2,466 meters.

The Jinsha River, which flows through Lijiang City, along with the three major mountain ranges that rise abruptly on both sides—the Yunling Mountains' Laojun Mountain, Yulong Mountain, and Mianmian Mountain (commonly known as Xiao Liangshan), form the basic framework and backbone of the topography of Lijiang City. Laojun Mountain stretches like a barrier from north to south on the west side, with its main peak reaching an elevation of 4,247.4 meters. Yulong Snow Mountain, which is located 15 kilometers from the seat of the city government of Lijiang, features high mountain glacier landforms and is covered with snow all year round. Its 13 peaks are connected end to end, pointing towards the sky. To the east lies Mianmian Mountain. There are 12 high mountains in Lijiang City with an elevation ranging from 3,500 to 5,000 meters. Middle mountains with an elevation between 2,500 and 3,500 meters are distributed across all counties. The areas of Ninglang and Yongsheng have a particularly high number of these mountains, and low mountainous areas below 2,500 meters are widely distributed in the southeastern and southern parts of the city.

Climate

Owing to its low latitude and high elevation, the city centre of Lijiang experiences a mild subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). Winters are mild and very dry and sunny (>70% possible sunshine), although average lows in December and January are just below the freezing mark; January, the coolest month, with 24-hour average temperature of 6.7 °C (44.1 °F). Spring begins early and remains dry and sunny until late May, when there is a dramatic uptick in frequency and amount of rainfall that lasts until late September. Summers are warm, rainy (more so than it is sunny) and damp, with June, the warmest month, averaging 19.1 °C (66.4 °F). Autumn sees an abrupt reduction in rainfall and return to sunniness. The annual mean temperature is 13.3 °C (55.9 °F), while precipitation averages 968 mm (38.1 in), around 80% of which occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 29% in July to 80% in December, the city receives 2,412 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Lijiang (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.6
(74.5)
26.3
(79.3)
28.9
(84.0)
30.8
(87.4)
32.3
(90.1)
31.4
(88.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.7
(83.7)
26.1
(79.0)
23.6
(74.5)
22.8
(73.0)
32.3
(90.1)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
15.7
(60.3)
18.0
(64.4)
20.8
(69.4)
23.1
(73.6)
24.5
(76.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.1
(73.6)
21.8
(71.2)
20.4
(68.7)
17.4
(63.3)
14.9
(58.8)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
8.7
(47.7)
11.2
(52.2)
14.2
(57.6)
17.0
(62.6)
19.1
(66.4)
18.4
(65.1)
17.8
(64.0)
16.3
(61.3)
13.7
(56.7)
9.8
(49.6)
7.0
(44.6)
13.3
(56.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
3.1
(37.6)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
14.9
(58.8)
15.0
(59.0)
14.3
(57.7)
12.8
(55.0)
9.0
(48.2)
3.8
(38.8)
0.5
(32.9)
8.4
(47.1)
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
(19.4)
−6.0
(21.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.5
(38.3)
6.2
(43.2)
6.9
(44.4)
6.6
(43.9)
3.4
(38.1)
0.9
(33.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
−10.3
(13.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.0
(0.20)
5.4
(0.21)
12.9
(0.51)
19.9
(0.78)
68.8
(2.71)
146.8
(5.78)
253.4
(9.98)
228.7
(9.00)
157.1
(6.19)
56.5
(2.22)
11.6
(0.46)
2.0
(0.08)
968.1
(38.12)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.3 3.5 5.0 7.0 12.3 18.3 23.6 22.5 19.8 10.7 3.2 1.1 129.3
Average snowy days 1.8 0.9 0.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.3 0.3 3.9
Average relative humidity (%) 44 43 45 49 58 70 80 82 82 72 60 51 61
Mean monthly sunshine hours 256.7 233.3 246.0 235.1 212.8 159.9 119.6 134.8 125.5 192.4 236.3 259.3 2,411.7
Percent possible sunshine 78 73 66 61 51 39 29 34 34 55 74 80 56
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration
Source 2: Weather China

Hydrological

The rivers within Lijiang city are divided into two major river basins and three water systems, namely the Jinsha River system and the Yalong River system of the Yangtze River basin, and the Lancang River system of the Lancang-Mekong River basin. Among them, the Yangtze River basin covers an area of 20,799 square kilometers, accounting for 98% of the total area; the Lancang River basin covers an area of 420 square kilometers, accounting for 2% of the total area. There are a total of 93 second-order and above tributaries of the Jinsha River, Yalong River, and Lancang River within Lijiang city, of which there are 21 rivers with a basin area of more than 200 square kilometers.

In addition to Lugu Lake, there are two larger natural lakes in Lijiang city, Chenghai and Lashihai. Among them, Chenghai is located in Yongsheng County and is one of the three lakes in the world that are rich in natural spirulina. It is also the only lake in China where spirulina can grow naturally. It covers an area of 77.2 square kilometers, with a water storage capacity of 1.987 billion cubic meters, an average water depth of 25.74 meters, and is the fourth largest lake in Yunnan Province.

Lashihai is located in Lashi Town, Yulong County, 8 kilometers away from the urban area of Lijiang. The lake area is oval-shaped with an altitude of 2450 meters, a water depth of 2.5 to 4.5 meters, a water storage area of 241 square kilometers, and a lake surface area of 8.5 square kilometers. In 1998, it became the first highland wetland nature reserve and a migratory bird habitat in Yunnan Province, and in 2005, it was included in the list of Internationally Important Wetlands.

Natural resources

Land resources

By the end of 2022, Lijiang City had a total of 185,745.95 hectares (2,786,189 mu) of arable land. This includes:Paddy fields amounting to 29,283.03 hectares (439,245 mu), accounting for 15.77% of the tota. Irrigated land amounting to 5,857.66 hectares (88,765 mu), accounting for 3.15% of the total. Dry land amounting to 150,605.26 hectares (2,259,079 mu), accounting for 81.08% of the total.

Yongsheng County and Ninglang Yi Autonomous County have relatively larger areas of arable land, making up 64.28% of the total arable land in Lijiang City. All the arable land is located in regions with a double cropping system per year and in areas with an annual precipitation of 800-1200 millimeters (inclusive of 800 millimeters).

Biological resources

Lijiang City is home to a rich diversity of flora and fauna, with more than 13,000 species of animals and plants, making it one of the country's renowned bases for the protection of these species. It is also one of the key forested areas in Yunnan Province and has been identified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as one of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots in the Hengduan Mountains region of China. Within its borders, there are several national first-class protected wild animals, such as the Yunnan golden snub-nosed monkey, clouded leopard, and forest musk deer, as well as rare species of national first-class protected wild plants, including the Himalayan yew, high-altitude water plantain, and Yulong fern. The forest coverage rate in Lijiang City is 72.14%, which makes it one of the key areas for the protection of natural forests in the country.

Lijiang City has recorded a variety of animal species, including:Mammals: 112 species across 8 orders, 21 families. Birds: 446 species across 17 orders, 46 families. Amphibians and reptiles: 51 species across 3 orders, 14 families, and 35 genera. Fish: Over 70 species across 5 orders, 15 families. In terms of vascular plants, there are 4,163 species (subspecies), belonging to 224 families and 1,120 genera. The number of seed plants is over 3,200 species across 145 families and 758 genera, with more than 2,000 species of medicinal materials. There are 2,266 species that are endemic to China and 617 species endemic to Yunnan Province.

Yulong Snow Mountain within the city's boundaries is a world-renowned site for plant specimen typification. There are also over a hundred new species and varieties of plants named after Lijiang's landscapes and place names on the international stage. As a result, Lijiang City has been dubbed the "Kingdom of Alpine Plants" and the "Hometown of Medicinal Herbs."

Administrative divisions

The government of Lijiang City sits in Gucheng District.

Lijiang City comprises one district and four counties:

Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
1 Gucheng District 古城区 Gǔchéng Qū 211,151 1,127 187
2 Yongsheng County 永胜县 Yǒngshèng Xiàn 392,024 5,099 77
3 Huaping County 华坪县 Huápíng Xiàn 168,028 2,266 74
4 Yulong Nakhi Autonomous County 玉龙纳西族自治县 Yùlóng Nàxīzú Zìzhìxiàn 214,697 6,521 33
5 Ninglang Yi Autonomous County 宁蒗彝族自治县 Nínglàng Yízú Zìzhìxiàn 258,869 6,206 42

Demography

Lijiang is a multi-ethnic settlement. The Naxi (originally from northwestern China and with a Tibeto-Burman language and pictographic characters of their own) are mainly distributed in Lijiang, with a population of about 230,000 (including Mosuo, which is different from most Naxi people. They belong to a matrilineal clan, and the locals call it walking marriage). There are also Yi, Lisu, Hua Lisu and other nationalities. Lijiang has the only Naxi autonomous county in China. The residents in the county are mainly Naxi, and there are also Bai, Yi, Lisu, Pumi and other minorities. Among them, the Dongba of the Naxi nationality is known as the only "living pictograph" in the world that has been preserved intact.

Among the resident population in 2010, the Han population was 537,893, accounting for 43.21% of the total population; the ethnic minorities population was 706,876, accounting for 56.79% of the total population.

Ethnic Composition of Lijiang City (November 2010)
National name Han Yi Naxi Lisu Bai Pumi Dai Miao Tibetan Hui Others
Population 537893 243400 240580 115730 52071 20400 11236 6884 5199 4615 6761
Proportion of total population (%) 43.21 19.55 19.33 9.30 4.18 1.64 0.90 0.55 0.42 0.37 0.54
Proportion of minority population (%) --- 34.43 34.03 16.37 7.37 2.89 1.59 0.97 0.74 0.65 0.96

Local culture

Minority ethnic culture

The Naxi people have their own language. The Naxi language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is roughly divided into two dialects by the Jinsha River. The dialects cannot talk to each other. The standard language of Naxi language is based on the dialect of the western dialect of Naxi language, and the voice of Dayan Town of Lijiang City is the standard sound. In the long history of the Naxi people, there have been Dongbawen and Gobawen characters. "Dongbawen" is a hieroglyph created by the Naxi people more than a thousand years ago (before the Tang dynasty). It consists of pictographic symbols, phonetic symbols and additional symbols. It is the only living hieroglyph in the world that is still circulating in the folk. The Naxi people generally live in dam areas, river valleys and half-mountain areas. The private housing in the dam area is mostly a tiled house with civil structures. The pattern is mostly "three rooms and one wall", and the mountainous areas are mostly low wooden raft houses, which are covered with wooden boards. The Naxi people love singing and dancing, and there are often mass songs and dances in production labor and national festivals. The "Three Festivals" at the beginning of the lunar calendar in early February is the most traditional festival of the people of Lijiang Naxi.

  • Mosuo

Mosuo is used to living in the mountains and waters. The houses are all made of wood. The traditional festivals of the Mosuo people include the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Chaoshan Festival, the Ancestor Festival, the Sacrifice God Festival, and the Festival of Land Festival. Among them, the Spring Festival and the Chaoshan Festival are the most solemn. Mosuo people can sing and dance.

The Yi people have a long history, and their ancestors are "Kunming" people who have a relationship with them. They were called "Wu Man" in the Tang and Song Dynasties. The Yi people have their own language and words. The language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. There are six dialects. The Xiaoliangshan Yi people belong to the northern dialect Shizha. Originally an ancient ideogram, some people think it is a pictographic syllable. In the history of the Yi people, they wrote historical, literary, astronomical and medical books, religious classics and so on. Most of the Yi villages are surrounded by mountains and waters, and the environment is beautiful. Generally, there are two or 30 households, and three or five households or single households are rare. The people living in Xiaoliangshan are generally low in order to avoid the cold of the mountains. Mostly, it is a timber frame with a multi-column landing structure. The four walls are made of wood or fenced with bamboo and wood. There are many festivals for the Yi people, such as the Lunar Festival, the 15th Festival, the February 8th, and the March 3rd Festival, especially the Torch Festival.

The Lisu language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family. The Lisu people live in a high-slope area. Due to the influence of the terrain and habits, there are no villages that live in dozens of houses. Generally, there are dozens of households on two or three hills as a village. The villages are far apart, and the houses are mainly wooden rafts. The Lisu people have oral songs and long poems, as well as many myths and legends. Every December, the people of Huaping and other places will hold a grand ceremony to celebrate the "Wide Season" (New Year's Day). There are also the Dragon Boat Festival "Hangshan Festival" and Lixia "Holy Water Festival" in Lijiang Dawn Township.

The language of the Pumi people belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan-Burmese language group of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The local dialects have little difference and generally can talk to each other. There are no words in the Pumi people. The Pumi people in Ninglang and Muli used to spell the Pumi language in Tibetan language to record historical legends and songs, but they are not popular and are now widely used in Chinese. The Pumi people live in a multi-clan, mostly on the mountainside, and the houses are mostly the layout of the wooden courtyard. The Pumi people have their own unique culture and art. Among them, the myths, legends and stories are the most numerous. The Pumi people can sing and dance. In the event of a wedding or funeral festival, a "song to the song" competition is held. Pumi men also like sports such as shooting, archery, wrestling, and martial arts. The most popular national traditional festival of the Pumi is the "Ohwa Festival" (the New Year) on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month. In addition, there is the "Turning Sea Festival" on the 15th of the first month, and the "Taste of the New Festival" in the spring and autumn harvest season.

Cuisine

  • Salad of Jidou Pea Jelly (鸡豆凉粉)

Salad of Jidou pea jelly is a traditional food that Naxi loves. It is produced in Lijiangba and belongs to the yellow bean family. Because it is shaped like a chicken head, it is called chicken pea powder. The beans are milled into vermicelli, the color is gray-green, fried, the salad is very tasty, and the fragrance is delicious. It is a dish on the Naxi table.

  • Lijiang Baba (丽江粑粑)

Lijiang Baba is the local fine wheat noodles, plus ham, chemical oil, sugar and other condiments, and mix thoroughly to form a layer. Eat a golden crisp, sweet and delicious, oily but not greasy.

  • Naxi Barbecue (纳西烧烤)

Naxi barbecue is a traditional carbace dish popular on Lijiang Tea Horse Road. The main ingredient is pork belly. The skin is golden and crisp, fat but not greasy, thin and not firewood, and the taste is crisp.

  • Crossing-the-Bridge Noodles (过桥米线)

Crossing-the-Bridge Noodles is a rice noodle soup from the Yunnan province, it has over 100 years of history. The dish is served with a large bowl of boiling hot broth and the soup ingredients. The soup is made with chicken, pork bone and seasoning, such as Chinese star anise and ginger. Also, using a layer of chicken fat to insulate the soup and therefore keep it warm for longer.

  • Erkuai (饵块)

Erkuai is a type of rice cake, the name literally means "ear piece," a reference to the shape of one of its common forms. It is often served stir-fried with vegetables, and málà sauce, which is a mixture of dried red chilis, Sichuan pepper, and salt.

Transportation

Lijiang Sanyi Airport
Lijiang railway station

Airport

Road

Railway

Lijiang railway station is currently the terminus of the Dali–Lijiang railway, which heads south. The Lijiang–Shangri-La railway, currently under construction, will extend this line north to Shangri-La.

  • There is a train service to Kunming with one overnight and two day trains, and one day train to Dali.
  • As of early 2019, a high speed train linking Lijiang to Kunming was introduced. Three pairs of high speed trains are operated between Lijiang railway station and Kunming railway station / Kunming South railway station. It takes around 3–3.5 hours and the ticket fare is CNY 197–220 for a second class seat.
  • There are over 5 pairs of conventional speed trains running between Lijiang and Kunming. The distance is about 517 km (321 mi), requiring 8.5 – 9.5 hours for a one-way trip. A hard sleeper costs CNY 186.5.
  • The Lijiang–Shangri-La railway from Lijiang to Shangri-La is expected to open in late 2021.

Tram

  • Line 1 of Lijiang Tram started construction in October 2019.

Major tourist attractions

Old Town of Lijiang

Old Town by night

Old Town of Lijiang is a national historical and cultural city. It was built in the late Song dynasty (late 13th century AD). It is located in the middle of Lijiang Dam. It is the most preserved and most Naxi-style ancient town in China. It is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. At an altitude of 2,416 meters, the city covers an area of 3.8 square kilometers. In December 1997, it was included in the “World Cultural Heritage” list by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.

Lugu Lake

Lugu Lake is 2,680 meters above sea level, with an area of more than 50 square kilometers. The average lake depth is 45 meters and the deepest is 93 meters. The lake is clear and blue, with a visibility of 12–14 meters. It is one of the deepest freshwater lakes in China.

Jade Dragon Snow Mountain

Jade Dragon Snow Mountain towering above roofs of the old town

Jade Dragon Snow Mountain is located between 100°4′2”-100°16’30” east longitude and 27°3’2”-27°18’57” north latitude. The scenic area is 415 square kilometers. The main peak fan is 5,596 meters above sea level. It has snow all year round and develops the temperate maritime glaciers closest to the equator in the Eurasian continent. Jade Dragon Snow Mountain is called "Oulu" in Naxi, meaning silvery mountain rock. Its silver-packed, 13 snow peaks are endless, just like a "dragon" flying over the clouds, it is called "Jade Dragon." Because its lithology is mainly limestone and basalt, it is black and white, so it is also called "black and white snow mountain". She is the mountain of the hearts of the Naxi people. It is said that the Naxi people protect the gods of the "three more" incarnation.

Laojun Mountain

Laojun Mountain is a combination of the three national-level scenic spots in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, the Three Rivers Concurrent, and the Cangshan Erhai Lake. It is an important part of the Yulong Snow Mountain Scenic Area. This scenic spot is mainly composed of Laojunshan Jiujiu Longtan, Jinsi Factory Jinshan Yuhu, Dawn Meile Danxia Landform, New Main Natural Alpine Botanical Garden and other areas (attractions), with a total area of 715 square kilometers, which is under planning and development. Ecotourism resort. It echoes with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain and forms the east and west wings of Lijiang's tourism resources.

Nearby

Some 35 kilometers north of Lijiang is the Baishui Terrace, an area where spring water flows over a sinter terrace, leaving behind travertine.

Fifteen kilometers north of Lijiang is the village of Baisha, famous for the Baisha Fresco and the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute. The Fresco was built in the Ming dynasty 600 years ago, the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute was built 800 years ago, it is the headquarters of the Naxi embroideries and also, a school for the Naxi embroiderers. There are many Naxi embroidery masters, teachers, students and local farmers there. Their embroidery arts can be found there.

Education

Lijiang Teachers College (丽江师范高等专科学校; Lìjiāng Shīfàn Gāoděng Zhuānkēxuéxiào) and Lijiang Culture and Tourism College (丽江文化旅游学院; Lìjiāng Wénhuà Lǚyóu Xuéyuàn) are located in Lijiang. The latter was a branch of Yunnan University (YNU). At one point the teacher's college merged into YNU.

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ "China: Yúnnán (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ 云南省统计局、国家统计局云南调查总队 (December 2023). 《云南统计年鉴-2023》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-9653-1.
  3. ^ "Old Town of Lijiang". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations, Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 4 Apr 2021.
  4. ^ Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). China's Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B005DQV7Q2
  5. ^ a b c d Kapstein, Matthew (2009). Buddhism between Tibet and China. Boston: Wisdom Publications.
  6. ^ 学术动态—丽江木氏土司与滇川藏交角区域历史文化研讨会综述. iea.cass.cn. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  7. ^ Herman, John E. (February 1997). "Empire in the Southwest: Early Qing Reforms to the Native Chieftain System". The Journal of Asian Studies. 56 (1): 47–74. doi:10.2307/2646343. ISSN 1752-0401.
  8. ^ 丽江市人民政府门户网站. Lijiang People's Government. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  9. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  10. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  11. ^ 丽江 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  12. ^ "Top 4 lakes in Yunnan". www.chinaexploration.com. Retrieved 2024-05-17.
  13. ^ "Lashihai Lake: A Haven for Wildlife and Natural Beauty | Colorful Yunnan". www.visityunnanchina.com. Retrieved 2024-05-17.
  14. ^ Kehui, L. I. U.; Guangluan, L. I.; Chunming, L. I.; Keyi, Zhao; Ningning, Zhang; Jieyi, X. U. E.; Yi, L. I.; Fangming, Y. U.; Min, Duan (2022-02-18). "A Review of Research on Lijiang Ecological Environment Based on Bibliometric and Knowledge Mapping Analysis Over the Past Four Decades". Ecology and Environment. 31 (2): 409. doi:10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2022.02.022. ISSN 1674-5906.
  15. ^ "Local". news.cop15-china.com.cn. Retrieved 2024-05-17.
  16. ^ Qian, Li-Shen; Chen, Jia-Hui; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang (2020-08-01). "Plant diversity in Yunnan: Current status and future directions". Plant Diversity. Safeguarding Our Future by Protecting Biodiversity. 42 (4): 281–291. doi:10.1016/j.pld.2020.07.006. ISSN 2468-2659. PMC 7567762.
  17. ^ Yunnan Provincial Census Office, Yunnan Provincial Bureau of Statistics (September 2012). "Yunnan Provincial Census Data in 2010". China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6548-3.
  18. ^ a b c d e 丽江少数民族-云南省丽江市中级人民法院. ljzy.chinacourt.gov.cn. Retrieved May 22, 2019.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ a b c d e 丽江不可错过的十大特色小吃_新浪旅游_新浪网. travel.sina.com.cn. Jul 13, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  20. ^ 沿途设5座车站、最高时速70公里...丽江有轨电车开建!. The Paper. 2019-10-31.
  21. ^ 6月 我爱的丽江古城 每一个触目能及的地方都盛放着三角梅_旅游景点_丽江旅游_丽江网. www.lijiang.cn. Archived from the original on October 30, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  22. ^ 泸沽湖啊,我想与你谈一场恋爱~_旅游景点_丽江旅游_丽江网. www.lijiang.cn. Archived from the original on July 6, 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  23. ^ 玉龙雪山. 52yulong.com.
  24. ^ 世界自然遗产丽江老君山:重山叠岭气势恢宏_旅游景点_丽江旅游_丽江网. www.lijiang.cn. Archived from the original on October 20, 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  25. ^ "Home". Lijiang Teachers College. Retrieved 2022-04-22. 校址:云南省丽江市古城新团片区 邮编:674199
  26. ^ "Home". Lijiang Culture and Tourism College. Retrieved 2022-04-22. 学院地址:云南省丽江市古城区玉泉路1号 邮编:674199
  27. ^ "学院简介". Lijiang Culture and Tourism College. Retrieved 2022-04-22. 丽江文化旅游学院(原云南大学旅游文化学院)
  28. ^ "Historic Perspectives". Yunnan University. 2004-06-23. Archived from the original on 23 June 2004. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  29. ^ Successful use of heritage is the pledge of prosperous future of Euro-Asia Cities (DOC file). II International Conference of World Heritage Cities of Euro-Asia. Lijiang. 15–18 October 2006 Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ 刘蓉 (2012-05-01). 丽江市与柬埔寨柏威夏省缔结为国际友好城市 [Lijiang establish international friendly city with Preah Vihear Province of Cambodia]. yndaily.yunnan.cn. Yunnan Daily Newspaper. Retrieved 2018-05-14.

External links

Listen to this article (3 minutes)
Spoken Wikipedia icon
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 15 January 2007 (2007-01-15), and does not reflect subsequent edits.