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The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations System: 193 UN member states, 2 UN General Assembly non-member observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states having undisputed sovereignty (188 states, of which there are 187 UN member states and 1 UN General Assembly non-member observer state), states having disputed sovereignty (16 states, of which there are 6 UN member states, 1 UN General Assembly non-member observer state, and 9 de facto states), and states having a special political status (2 states, both in free association with New Zealand).
Compiling a list such as this can be a complicated and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.
The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".
Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all polities that consider themselves sovereign states (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and either:
In some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states.
On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:
The table includes bullets in the right-hand column representing entities that are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:
"Membership within the UN System" column legend
UN member state
UN General Assembly observer state
"Sovereignty dispute" column legend
|Common and formal names||Membership within the UN System||Sovereignty dispute||Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty|
|Afghanistan||UN member state||None||The de facto ruling government, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, has not been recognized by any state. The United Nations continues to recognize the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as the government of Afghanistan.|
|Albania – Republic of Albania||UN member state||None|
|Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria||UN member state||None|
|Andorra – Principality of Andorra||UN member state||None||Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed with approval from the Holy See.|
|Angola – Republic of Angola||UN member state||None|
|Antigua and Barbuda||UN member state||None||Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm with one autonomous region, Barbuda.|
|Argentina – Argentine Republic||UN member state||None||Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and one autonomous city.|
|Armenia – Republic of Armenia||UN member state||Not recognized by Pakistan.||Armenia is not recognized by Pakistan due to the dispute over Artsakh.|
|Australia – Commonwealth of Australia||UN member state||None||Australia is a Commonwealth realm and a federation of both states and territories. There are six states, three internal territories, six external territories and one claimed Antarctic external territory. The external territories of Australia are:|
|Austria – Republic of Austria||UN member state||None||Member of the European Union. Austria is a federation of nine states.|
|Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan||UN member state||None||Azerbaijan contains one autonomous region, Nakhchivan. The de facto state of Artsakh has been established in the southwest of Azerbaijan.|
|Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas||UN member state||None||The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain||UN member state||None|
|Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh||UN member state||None|
|Barbados||UN member state||None|
|Belarus – Republic of Belarus||UN member state||None||Many states rescinded their recognition of President Alexander Lukashenko following the disputed 2020 election. Lithuania currently recognizes Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya's Coordination Council as the legitimate government of Belarus.|
|Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Belgium is a federation of three linguistic communities and three regions.|
|Belize||UN member state||None||Belize is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Benin – Republic of Benin||UN member state||None|
|Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan||UN member state||None|
|Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia||UN member state||None|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||UN member state||None||Bosnia and Herzegovina has two constituent entities:
and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative district.
|Botswana – Republic of Botswana||UN member state||None|
|Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil||UN member state||None||Brazil is a federation of 26 states and one federal district.|
|Brunei – Brunei Darussalam||UN member state||None|
|Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Burkina Faso||UN member state||None|
|Burundi – Republic of Burundi||UN member state||None|
|Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia||UN member state||None|
|Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon||UN member state||None|
|Canada||UN member state||None||Canada is a Commonwealth realm and a federation of ten provinces and three territories.|
|Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde||UN member state||None|
|Central African Republic||UN member state||None|
|Chad – Republic of Chad||UN member state||None|
|Chile – Republic of Chile||UN member state||None||Chile has one special territory, Easter Island.|
|China – People's Republic of China||UN member state||Partially unrecognized. Claimed by the Republic of China||China contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang. Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.
China is not recognized by 13 UN member states and Vatican City, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) instead.
|Colombia – Republic of Colombia||UN member state||None|
|Comoros – Union of the Comoros||UN member state||None||Comoros is a federation of three islands.|
|Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica||UN member state||None|
|Croatia – Republic of Croatia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Cuba – Republic of Cuba||UN member state||None|
|Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus||UN member state||Not recognized by Turkey||Member of the EU. The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus.
Cyprus is not recognized by Turkey due to the Cyprus dispute, with Turkey recognizing Northern Cyprus.
|Czech Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||UN member state||None|
|Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:
The metropolitan territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law (in most cases) does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. See Greenland and the European Union, and Faroe Islands and the European Union for more information.
|Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti||UN member state||None|
|Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica||UN member state||None|
|Dominican Republic||UN member state||None|
|East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste||UN member state||None|
|Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador||UN member state||None|
|Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt||UN member state||None|
|El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador||UN member state||None|
|Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea||UN member state||None|
|Eritrea – State of Eritrea||UN member state||None|
|Estonia – Republic of Estonia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini||UN member state||None|
|Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||UN member state||None||Ethiopia is a federation of eleven regions and two chartered cities.|
|Fiji – Republic of Fiji||UN member state||None||Fiji contains one autonomous region, Rotuma.|
|Finland – Republic of Finland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.
|France – French Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. France contains five overseas regions/departments; French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:|
|Gabon – Gabonese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia||UN member state||None|
|Georgia||UN member state||None||Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia. In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.|
|Germany – Federal Republic of Germany||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Germany is a federation of 16 states.|
|Ghana – Republic of Ghana||UN member state||None|
|Greece – Hellenic Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Greece contains one autonomous area, Mount Athos.|
|Grenada||UN member state||None||Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala||UN member state||None|
|Guinea – Republic of Guinea||UN member state||None|
|Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau||UN member state||None|
|Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana||UN member state||None|
|Haiti – Republic of Haiti||UN member state||None|
|Honduras – Republic of Honduras||UN member state||None|
|Hungary||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Iceland – Republic of Iceland||UN member state||None|
|India – Republic of India||UN member state||None||India is a federation of 28 states and eight union territories.|
|Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia||UN member state||None||Indonesia has eight autonomous provinces, Aceh, Jakarta, Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta.|
|Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran||UN member state||None|
|Iraq – Republic of Iraq||UN member state||None||Iraq is a federation of 19 governorates, four of which make up the autonomous Kurdistan Region.|
|Ireland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Israel – State of Israel||UN member state||Partially unrecognized||Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. It has annexed East Jerusalem, an act not recognized by the international community. Israel has varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although it ended its permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, it is still considered to be the occupying power under international law.
Israel is not recognized as a state by 28 UN members and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Palestine Liberation Organization, recognized by a majority of UN member states as the representative of the Palestinian people, recognized Israel in 1993.
|Italy – Italian Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.|
|Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire||UN member state||None|
|Jamaica||UN member state||None||Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Japan||UN member state||None|
|Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan||UN member state||None|
|Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan||UN member state||None|
|Kenya – Republic of Kenya||UN member state||None|
|Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati||UN member state||None|
|Kuwait – State of Kuwait||UN member state||None|
|Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic||UN member state||None|
|Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic||UN member state||None|
|Latvia – Republic of Latvia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Lebanon – Lebanese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho||UN member state||None|
|Liberia – Republic of Liberia||UN member state||None|
|Libya – State of Libya||UN member state||None|
|Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein||UN member state||None|
|Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar||UN member state||None|
|Malawi – Republic of Malawi||UN member state||None|
|Malaysia||UN member state||None||Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.|
|Maldives – Republic of Maldives||UN member state||None|
|Mali – Republic of Mali||UN member state||None|
|Malta – Republic of Malta||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.|
|Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania||UN member state||None|
|Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius||UN member state||None||Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.|
|Mexico – United Mexican States||UN member state||None||Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.
The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities have de facto autonomy.
|Micronesia, Federated States of||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.|
|Moldova – Republic of Moldova||UN member state||None||Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and the Left Bank of the Dniester. The latter and a city Bender (Tighina), is under the de facto control of Transnistria.|
|Monaco – Principality of Monaco||UN member state||None|
|Mongolia||UN member state||None|
|Montenegro||UN member state||None|
|Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco||UN member state||None||Part of the Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara is controlled by the partially recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.|
|Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique||UN member state||None|
|Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar||UN member state||None||Wa State is a de facto autonomous state within Myanmar. The United Nations has not recognized the de facto ruling government of Myanmar, the State Administration Council.|
|Namibia – Republic of Namibia||UN member state||None|
|Nauru – Republic of Nauru||UN member state||None|
|Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal||UN member state||None||Nepal is a federation composed of 7 provinces.|
|Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:
Metropolitan Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three overseas parts of the Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of metropolitan Netherlands. The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law only wholly applies to parts within Europe.
|New Zealand||UN member state||None||New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm, and has one dependent territory and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:
The New Zealand Government acts for the entire Realm of New Zealand in all international contexts, which has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:
The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively. They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, and are members of some UN specialized agencies.
|Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua||UN member state||None||Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.|
|Niger – Republic of the Niger||UN member state||None|
|Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria||UN member state||None||Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.|
|North Korea – Democratic People's Republic of Korea||UN member state||South KoreaClaimed by||North Korea is not recognized by seven UN members, Botswana, Estonia, France, Israel, Japan, the United States, and South Korea, the last of which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.|
|North Macedonia – Republic of North Macedonia||UN member state||None|
|Norway – Kingdom of Norway||UN member state||None||Norway has two unincorporated areas in Europe:
Norway has one dependent territory and two claimed Antarctic dependent territories in the Southern Hemisphere:
|Oman – Sultanate of Oman||UN member state||None|
|Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan||UN member state||None||Pakistan is a federation of four provinces and one capital territory. Pakistan exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:
Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government. These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfil the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defense) are performed by Pakistan.
|Palau – Republic of Palau||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.|
|Palestine – State of Palestine||UN General Assembly observer state; member of two UN specialized agencies||Partially unrecognised.||The State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognized as a state by Israel but has received diplomatic recognition from 139 states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control over much of the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO, UNIDO and other international organizations.|
|Panama – Republic of Panama||UN member state||None|
|Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea||UN member state||None||Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm with one autonomous region, Bougainville.|
|Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay||UN member state||None|
|Peru – Republic of Peru||UN member state||None|
|Philippines – Republic of the Philippines||UN member state||None||The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro.|
|Poland – Republic of Poland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Portugal – Portuguese Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Portugal contains two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira.|
|Qatar – State of Qatar||UN member state||None|
|Republic of the Congo||UN member state||None|
|Romania||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Russia – Russian Federation||UN member state||None||Russia is a federation of 83 internationally recognized federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.|
|Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda||UN member state||None|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis||UN member state||None||Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm and is a federation of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.|
|Saint Lucia||UN member state||None||Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||UN member state||None||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Samoa – Independent State of Samoa||UN member state||None|
|San Marino – Republic of San Marino||UN member state||None|
|São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe||UN member state||None||São Tomé and Príncipe contains one autonomous province, Príncipe.|
|Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia||UN member state||None|
|Senegal – Republic of Senegal||UN member state||None|
|Serbia – Republic of Serbia||UN member state||None||Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter is under the de facto control of Kosovo.|
|Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles||UN member state||None|
|Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone||UN member state||None|
|Singapore – Republic of Singapore||UN member state||None|
|Slovakia – Slovak Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Solomon Islands||UN member state||None||Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia||UN member state||None||Somalia is a federation of six states. Two, Puntland and Galmudug, have self-declared autonomy, while one, Somaliland, is de facto independent.|
|South Africa – Republic of South Africa||UN member state||None|
|South Korea – Republic of Korea||UN member state||North KoreaClaimed by||South Korea has one autonomous region, Jeju Province.
South Korea is not recognized by North Korea, which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.
|South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan||UN member state||None||South Sudan is a federation of 10 states and three administrative areas.
|Spain – Kingdom of Spain||UN member state||None||Member of the EU. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and two special autonomous cities.|
|Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka||UN member state||None|
|Sudan – Republic of the Sudan||UN member state||None||Sudan is a federation of 18 states.
|Suriname – Republic of Suriname||UN member state||None|
|Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.|
|Switzerland – Swiss Confederation||UN member state||None||Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.|
|Syria – Syrian Arab Republic||UN member state||None||The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.
Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.
|Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan||UN member state||None||Tajikistan contains one autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.|
|Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania||UN member state||None||Tanzania contains one autonomous region, Zanzibar.|
|Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand||UN member state||None|
|Togo – Togolese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga||UN member state||None|
|Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago||UN member state||None||Trinidad and Tobago contains one autonomous region, Tobago.|
|Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia||UN member state||None|
|Turkey – Republic of Türkiye||UN member state||None|
|Turkmenistan||UN member state||None|
|Tuvalu||UN member state||None||Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.|
|Uganda – Republic of Uganda||UN member state||None|
|Ukraine||UN member state||None||Ukraine contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which is under the control of Russia. Five other areas of Ukraine are under full or partial Russian control, including Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, Sevastopol, and Zaporizhzhia.|
|United Arab Emirates||UN member state||None||The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.|
|United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||UN member state||None||The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm consisting of four constituent countries; England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following 13 overseas territories and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:
The British monarch also has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown Dependencies:
|United States – United States of America||UN member state||None||The United States is a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory. Additionally, the Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over 13 unincorporated territories. Of these territories, the following five are inhabited possessions:
It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:
It also disputes sovereignty over the following two territories:
Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:
|Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay||UN member state||None|
|Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan||UN member state||None||Uzbekistan contains one autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.|
|Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu||UN member state||None|
|Vatican City – Vatican City State||UN General Assembly observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies||None||Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations to 183 states. This figure consists of 180 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the State of Palestine. In addition, the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintain diplomatic relations with the Holy See. The Holy See is a member of three UN specialized agencies (ITU, UPU, and WIPO) and the IAEA, as well as being a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.|
|Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela||UN member state||None||Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, one capital district, and federal dependencies.|
|Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam||UN member state||None|
|Yemen – Republic of Yemen||UN member state||None|
|Zambia – Republic of Zambia||UN member state||None|
|Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe||UN member state||None|
"Membership within the UN System" column legend
Member state of a UN Specialized Agency
"Sovereignty dispute" column legend
|Common and formal names||Membership within the UN System||Sovereignty dispute||Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty|
|Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia||No membership||GeorgiaClaimed by||Recognized by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Syria, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.|
|Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh||No membership||AzerbaijanClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.|
|Cook Islands||UN specialized agenciesMember of eight||
(See political status)
|A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.|
|Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo||UN specialized agenciesMember of two||SerbiaClaimed by||Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999. Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 114 UN member states and the Republic of China, while 18 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognize Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.|
|Niue||UN specialized agenciesMember of five||
(See political status)
|A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.|
|Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus||No membership||Republic of CyprusClaimed by the||Recognized only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||No membership||MoroccoClaimed by||Recognized at some stage by 84 UN member states, 38 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.|
|Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland||No membership||SomaliaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, not diplomatically recognized by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.|
|South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of Alania||No membership||GeorgiaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognized by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh, and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia.|
|Taiwan – Republic of China||No membership, former membership until 1971||Partially unrecognized. Claimed by the People's Republic of China||A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, and Pratas Island, as well as Taiping Island and Zhongzhou Reef of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. The ROC is recognized by 12 UN member states and the Holy See as of 26 March 2023, none of which recognize the PRC. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognizing either the ROC or the PRC.
In addition to these relations, the ROC also maintains unofficial relations with 58 UN member states, one self-declared state (Somaliland), three territories (Guam, Hong Kong, and Macau), and the European Union via its representative offices and consulates under the One China principle. Taiwan has the 31st-largest diplomatic network in the world with 110 offices.
The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC. The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership under the designation of "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu". The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.
|Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic||No membership||MoldovaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognized only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by Moldova.|
We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state.
Turkey stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus and its government.
It is this direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza that has led the United Nations, the UN General Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza, International human rights organisations, US Government websites, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and a significant number of legal commentators, to reject the argument that Gaza is no longer occupied.
Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May 2011, its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza.
In other words, while Israel maintained that its occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and purposes still occupied.
In addition to the four cases of contested statehood described above, there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland.
Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood.