Xinjiang internment camps

In this article we will explore Xinjiang internment camps from different perspectives, addressing its importance, its effects and its influence on today's society. Xinjiang internment camps is a topic that has captured the interest of researchers, professionals and the general public, due to its impact on our lives. From its origin to its evolution today, Xinjiang internment camps has been the subject of debate and reflection in various areas, being considered a key element in understanding the contemporary world. Through this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of Xinjiang internment camps, analyzing its various facets and its role in the current context.

Xinjiang internment camps
Indoctrination camps, labor camps
Detainees listening to speeches in a camp in Lop County, Xinjiang, April 2017
Other names
  • Vocational Education and Training Centers
  • Xinjiang re-education camps
LocationXinjiang, China
Built byChinese Communist Party
Government of China
Operated byXinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional People's Government and the Party Committee
Number of inmatesUp to 1.8 million (2020 Zenz estimate)

1 million – 3 million over a period of several years (2019 Schriver estimate)

Plus ~497,000 minors in special boarding schools (2017 government document estimate)
Xinjiang internment camps
Uyghur name
Uyghurقايتا تەربىيەلەش لاگېرلىرى
Xinjiang re-education camps
Simplified Chinese再教育
Traditional Chinese再教育
Vocational Education and Training Centers
Simplified Chinese职业技能教育培训中心
Traditional Chinese職業技能教育培訓中心
Literal meaningVocational Skill(s) Education-Training Center(s)

The Xinjiang internment camps,[note 1] officially called vocational education and training centers (Chinese: 职业技能教育培训中心) by the government of China, are internment camps operated by the government of Xinjiang and the Chinese Communist Party Provincial Standing Committee. Human Rights Watch says that they have been used to indoctrinate Uyghurs and other Muslims since 2017 as part of a "people's war on terror", a policy announced in 2014. The camps have been criticized by the governments of many countries and human rights organizations for alleged human rights abuses, including mistreatment, rape, and torture, with some of them alleging genocide. Some 40 countries around the world have called on China to respect the human rights of the Uyghur community, including countries such as Canada, Germany, Turkey and Japan. The governments of more than 35 countries have expressed support for China's government. Xinjiang internment camps have been described as "the most extreme example of China's inhumane policies against Uighurs".

The camps were established in 2017 by the administration of CCP general secretary Xi Jinping. Between 2017 and 2021 operations were led by Chen Quanguo, who was formerly a CCP Politburo member and the committee secretary who led the region's party committee and government. The camps are reportedly operated outside the Chinese legal system; many Uyghurs have reportedly been interned without trial and no charges have been levied against them (held in administrative detention). Local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs in these camps as well as members of other ethnic minority groups in China, for the stated purpose of countering extremism and terrorism and promoting social integration.

The internment of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in the camps constitutes the largest-scale arbitrary detention of ethnic and religious minorities since World War II. As of 2020, it was estimated that Chinese authorities may have detained up to 1.8 million people, mostly Uyghurs but also including Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other ethnic Turkic Muslims, Christians, as well as some foreign citizens including Kazakhstanis, in these secretive internment camps located throughout the region. According to Adrian Zenz, a major researcher on the camps, the mass internments peaked in 2018 and abated somewhat since then, with officials shifting focus towards forced labor programs. Other human rights activists and US officials have also noted a shifting of individuals from the camps into the formal penal system.

In May 2018, Randall Schriver, US Assistant Secretary of Defense for Indo-Pacific Security Affairs, said that "at least a million but likely closer to three million citizens" were imprisoned in detention centers, which he described as "concentration camps". In August 2018, Gay McDougall, a US representative at the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, said that the committee had received many credible reports that 1 million ethnic Uyghurs in China have been held in "re-education camps". There have been comparisons between the Xinjiang camps and the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

In 2019, at the United Nations, 54 countries, including China itself, rejected the allegations and supported the Chinese government's policies in Xinjiang. In another letter, 23 countries shared the concerns in the committee's reports and called on China to uphold human rights. In September 2020, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) reported in its Xinjiang Data Project that construction of camps continued despite government claims that their function was winding down. In October 2020, it was reported that the total number of countries that denounced China increased to 39, while the total number of countries that defended China decreased to 45. Sixteen countries that defended China in 2019 did not do so in 2020.

The Xinjiang Zhongtai Group is running some of the reeducation camps and uses reallocated workers in their facilities.


Xinjiang conflict

Various Chinese dynasties have historically exerted various degrees of control and influence over parts of what is modern-day Xinjiang. The region came under complete Chinese rule as a result of the westward expansion of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, which also conquered Tibet and Mongolia. This conquest, which marked the beginning of Xinjiang under Qing rule, ended circa 1758. While it was nominally declared to be a part of China's core territory, it was generally seen as a distant land unto its own by the imperial court; in 1758, it was designated a penal colony and a site of exile, and as a result, it was governed as a military protectorate, not integrated as a province.

After the 1928 assassination of Yang Zengxin, the governor of the semi-autonomous Kumul Khanate in east Xinjiang under the Republic of China, Jin Shuren succeeded Yang as governor of the Khanate. On the death of the Kamul Khan Maqsud Shah in 1930, Jin entirely abolished the Khanate and took control of the region as its warlord. In 1933, the breakaway First East Turkestan Republic was established in the Kumul Rebellion. In 1934, the First Turkestan Republic was conquered by warlord Sheng Shicai with the aid of the Soviet Union before Sheng reconciled with the Republic of China in 1942. In 1944, the Ili Rebellion led to the Second East Turkestan Republic with dependency on the Soviet Union for trade, arms, and "tacit consent" for its continued existence before being absorbed into the People's Republic of China in 1949.

From the 1950s to the 1970s, the government sponsored a mass migration of Han Chinese to the region, policies promoting Chinese cultural unity, and policies punishing certain expressions of Uyghur identity. During this time, militant Uyghur separatist organizations with potential support from the Soviet Union emerged, with the East Turkestan People's Party being the largest in 1968. During the 1970s, the Soviets supported the United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) to fight the Chinese.

In 1997, a police roundup and execution of 30 suspected separatists during Ramadan led to large demonstrations in February 1997 that resulted in the Ghulja incident, a People's Liberation Army (PLA) crackdown that led to at least nine deaths. The Ürümqi bus bombings later that month killed nine people and injured 68 with responsibility acknowledged by Uyghur exile groups. In March 1997, a bus bomb killed two people with responsibility claimed by Uyghur radicals and the Turkey-based Organisation for East Turkistan Freedom.

In July 2009, riots broke out in Xinjiang in response to a violent dispute between Uyghur and Han Chinese workers in a factory and they resulted in over 100 deaths. Following the riots, Uyghur radicals killed dozens of Chinese citizens in coordinated attacks from 2009 to 2016. These included the August 2009 syringe attacks, the 2011 bomb-and-knife attack in Hotan, the March 2014 knife attack in the Kunming railway station, the April 2014 bomb-and-knife attack in the Ürümqi railway station, and the May 2014 car-and-bomb attack in an Ürümqi street market. Several of the attacks were orchestrated by the Turkistan Islamic Party (formerly the East Turkestan Islamic Movement) which has been designated a terrorist organization by several countries including Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States (until 2020), in addition to the United Nations.

Strategic motivations

After initially denying the existence of the camps the Chinese government has maintained that its actions in Xinjiang are justifiable responses to the threats of extremism and terrorism.

As a region on the northwestern periphery of China which is inhabited by ethnic/linguistic/religious minorities, Xinjiang has been said (by Raffi Khatchadourian) to have "never seemed fully within the Communist Party's grasp". Part of Xinjiang was once seized by Czarist Russia and it was also independent for a short period of time. Traditionally, the government of the People's Republic of China has favored an assimilationist policy towards minorities and it has accelerated this policy by encouraging the mass immigration of Han Chinese into minority lands. After the collapse of its rival and neighbor the Soviet Union—another huge multi-national communist state with one dominant ethnicity—the Chinese Communist Party was "convinced that ethnic nationalism had helped tear the former superpower to pieces". In addition, terrorist attacks were committed by Uyghurs in 2009, 2013, and 2014.

Several additional potential motives for the increased repression in Xinjiang have been presented by scholars who have conducted research outside China. First, the repression may simply be the result of increased dissent within the region beginning in circa 2009; second, it may be due to changes in minority policy which promoted assimilation into Han culture; and third, the repression may primarily be spearheaded by Chen Quanguo himself, the result of his personally hardline attitude towards perceived acts of sedition.

China's government has used the terrorist attacks of 9/11 as a justification for its actions against the Uyghurs. It claims that its actions in Xinjiang are necessary because Xinjiang is another front in the "global war on terrorism". Specifically, they are trying to rid China of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization's three evils. The three evils are "transnational terrorism, separatism, and religious extremism," all three of which the CCP believes the Uyghurs possess. The true reason for the repression of the Uyghurs is quite convoluted but some argue that this is based on the CCP's desire to preserve China's identity and integrity, rather than its desire to condemn terrorism.

Additionally, some analysts have suggested that the CCP considers Xinjiang a key route in China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), however, it considers Xinjiang's local population a potential threat to the initiative's success, or it fears that opening Xinjiang up may also open it up to radicalizing influences from other states which are participating in the BRI. Sean Roberts of George Washington University said the CCP sees Uyghurs' attachment to their traditional lands as a risk to the BRI. Researcher Adrian Zenz has suggested that the initiative is an important reason for the Chinese government's control of Xinjiang.

In November 2020, when the US dropped the Turkistan Islamic Party from its terrorist list because it was no longer "in existence", the decision was lauded by some intelligence officials because it removed the pretext for the Chinese government's decision to wage "terrorism eradication" campaigns against the Uyghurs. However, Yue Gang, a military commentator in Beijing stated, "in the wake of the US decision on the ETIM, China might seek to increase its counterterrorism activities." The group continues to be designated as a terrorist group by the United Nations Security Council as well as by the governments of other countries.

Policies from 2009 to 2016

Number of re-education related government procurement bids in Xinjiang, 2016–2018, according to the Jamestown Foundation

Both prior to and until shortly after the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, Wang Lequan was the Party Secretary for the Xinjiang region, effectively the highest subnational role; roughly equivalent to a governor in a Western province or state. Wang worked on modernization programs in Xinjiang, including industrialization, development of commerce, roads, railways, hydrocarbon development and pipelines with neighboring Kazakhstan to eastern China. Wang also constrained local culture and religion, replaced the Uyghur language with Standard Mandarin as the medium of education in primary schools, and penalized or banned among government workers (in a region in which the government was a very large employer), the wearing of beards and headscarves, religious fasting and praying while on the job. In the 1990s, many Uyghurs in parts of Xinjiang could not speak Mandarin Chinese.

In April 2010, after the Ürümqi riots, Zhang Chunxian replaced Wang Lequan as the Communist Party chief. Zhang Chunxian continued and strengthened Wang's repressive policies. In 2011, Zhang proposed "modern culture leads the development in Xinjiang" as his policy statement and started to implement his modern culture propaganda. In 2012, he first mentioned the phrase "de-extremification" (Chinese: 去极端化) campaigns and started to educate "wild Imams" (野阿訇) and extremists (极端主义者).

In 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative was announced, a massive trade project at the heart of which is Xinjiang. In 2014, Chinese authorities announced a "people's war on terror" and local government introduced new restrictions, including a ban on long beards and wearing the burqa in public. In 2014, the concept of "transformation through education" began to be used in contexts outside of Falun Gong through the systematic "de-extremification" campaigns. Under Zhang, the Communist Party launched its "Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism" in Xinjiang.

In August 2016, Chen Quanguo, a well-known hardline Communist Party secretary in Tibet, took charge of the Xinjiang autonomous region. Chen was branded as responsible for a major component of Tibet's "subjugation" by critics.

Following Chen's arrival, local authorities recruited over 90,000 police officers in 2016 and 2017 – twice as many as they recruited in the past seven years, and laid out as many as 7,300 heavily guarded check points in the region. The province has come to be known as one of the most heavily policed regions of the world. English-language news reports have labelled the current regime in Xinjiang as the most extensive police state in the world.

Antireligious campaigns

As a communist state, China does not have an official state religion, However, its government recognizes five different religious denominations, namely Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism. In 2014, Western media outlets reported that it has conducted antireligious campaigns in order to promote atheism. According to The Washington Post, the CCP under Xi Jinping shifted its policies in favor of the outright sinicization of ethnic and religious minorities. The trend accelerated in 2018 when the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and the State Administration for Religious Affairs were placed under the control of the CCP's United Front Work Department.

Groups that are targeted for surveillance

Around 2015, according to Chinese Human Rights Defenders, a senior CCP official argued that "a third" of Xinjiang's Uyghurs were "polluted by religious extremist forces", and needed to be "educated and reformed through concentrated force."

At about the same time, the Chinese state-security apparatus was developing a "Integrated Joint Operations Platform" (IJOP) to analyze information which was collected from its surveillance data. According to an analysis of this software by Human Rights Watch, a member of a minority group might be assessed by the IJOP as falling under one of 36 "person types" that could lead to arrest and internment in a re-education camp. Some of these person types included:

  • people who do not use a mobile phone,
  • who use the back door instead of the front,
  • who consume an "unusual" amount of electricity,
  • have an "abnormal" beard,
  • socialize too little,
  • maintain "complex" relationships,
  • have a family member that exhibits some of these traits and so is "insufficiently loyal".


Beginning in 2017, local media outlets generally referred to the facilities as "counter-extremism training centers" (去极端化培训班) and "education and transformation training centers" (教育转化培训中心). Most of those facilities were converted from existing schools or other official buildings, although some of them were purpose-built.

The heavily policed region and thousands of check points assisted and accelerated the detention of locals in the camps. In 2017 the region constituted 21% of all arrests in China despite comprising less than 2% of the national population, eight times more than the previous year. The judicial and other government bureaus of many cities and counties started to release a series of procurement and construction bids for those planned camps and facilities. Increasingly, massive detention centers were built up throughout the region and are being used to hold hundreds of thousands of people targeted for their religious practices and ethnicity.

Victor Shih, a political economist at the University of California, San Diego, said in July 2019 the mass internments were unnecessary because "no active insurgencies" existed, only "isolated terrorist incidents". He suggested that because a great deal of money was spent setting up the camps, the money likely went to associates of the politicians who created them.

According to the Chinese ambassador to Australia Cheng Jingye in December 2019, all of the "trainees" in the centers have graduated and have gradually returned to their jobs or found new jobs with government assistance. Cheng also called reports that one million Uyghurs had been detained in Xinjiang "fake news" and that "what has been done in Xinjiang has no ... difference with what the other countries, including western countries, to fight against terrorists."

During the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China, there were no reports of cases of the coronavirus in Xinjiang prisons or of conditions in the internment camps. After program suspensions due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, Uyghur workers were reported to have been returned to other parts of Xinjiang and the rest of China to resume work beginning in March 2020. In September 2020, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) launched its Xinjiang Data Project, which reported that construction of camps continued despite claims that their function was winding down, with 380 camps and detention centers identified.

The Muslim-majority countries like the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt were showing open support towards the Asian nation, stating that "China has the right to take anti‐terrorism and de‐extremism measures". The Arab nations were neglecting the human rights abuses to not ruin the economic ties they maintained with China, which is a crucial trading partner and investor for these countries. Moreover, the exiled Uyghur Muslims in these countries were regularly being detained and deported back to China.

According to the Associated Press, a young Chinese woman, Wu Huan was captured for eight days in a Chinese-run secret detention site in Dubai. She revealed that at least two other Uyghur prisoners were detained with her at a villa turned into jail. Critics have largely criticized the UAE for its supporting role in detaining as well as deporting the Uyghur Muslims and other Chinese political dissidents at the orders of the Chinese government.

Leaks and hacks

The New York Times leak

Pages from the China Cables

On 16 November 2019, The New York Times released an extensive leak of 400 pages of documents, sourced from a member of the Chinese government, in the hope that CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping would be held accountable for his actions. The New York Times stated that the leak suggests discontent inside the Communist Party relating to the crackdown in Xinjiang. The anonymous government official who leaked the documents did so with the intent that the disclosure "would prevent party leaders, including Mr. Xi, from escaping culpability for the mass detentions."

We must be as harsh as them and show absolutely no mercy. — Xi Jinping on the terror attacks in 2014, (translated from Mandarin Chinese)

One document was a manual aimed at communicating messages to Uyghur students who were returning home and would ask about their missing friends or relatives who had been interned in the camps. It said that government staff should acknowledge that the internees had not committed a crime and that "it is just that their thinking has been infected by unhealthy thoughts." Officials were directed to say that even grandparents and family members who seemed too old to carry out violence could not be spared.

The New York Times stated that speeches obtained show how Xi views risks to the party similar to the collapse of the Soviet Union, which The New York Times stated Xi "blamed on ideological laxity and spineless leadership." Concerned that violence in the Xinjiang region could damage social stability in the rest of China, Xi stated "social stability will suffer shocks, the general unity of people of every ethnicity will be damaged, and the broad outlook for reform, development and stability will be affected." Xi encouraged officials to study how the US responded following the September 11 attacks. Xi likened Islamic extremism alternately to a virus-like contagion and a dangerously addictive drug, and declared that addressing it would require "a period of painful, interventionary treatment."

The China Daily reported in 2018 that CCP official Wang Yongzhi was removed for "serious disciplinary violations". The New York Times obtained a copy of Wang's confession (which the report noted was likely signed under duress) and stated that The New York Times believed he was sacked for being too lenient on Uyghurs, for example his release of 7,000 detainees. Wang had told his superiors that he was concerned that the actions against the Uyghurs would breed discontent and thus result in greater violence in the future. The leaked documents stated, "he ignored the party central leadership's strategy for Xinjiang, and he went as far as brazen defiance. ... He refused, to round up everyone who should be rounded up". The article was discreetly shared on the Chinese platform Sina Weibo, where some netizens expressed sympathy for him. In 2017, there were more than 12,000 investigations into party members in Xinjiang for infractions or resistance in the "fight against separatism", which was more than 20 times the figure in the previous year.

ICIJ leak

On 24 November 2019, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) published the China Cables, consisting of six documents, an "operations manual" for running the camps and detailed use of predictive policing and artificial intelligence to target people and regulate life inside the camps.

Shortly after the publication of the China Cables, leaker Asiye Abdulaheb went on to provide Adrian Zenz with the "Karakax list", allegedly a Chinese government spreadsheet that tracks the rationale behind 311 of the internments at a "Vocational Training Internment Camp" in the seat of Karakax County in Xinjiang. The purpose of the list may have been to coordinate judgments on whether an individual should remain in internment; in some entries, the word "agree" was written beside a judgment. Records detail how subjects dress and pray, and how their relatives and acquaintances behave. One subject was interned because she wore a veil years ago; another was interned for clicking on a link to a foreign website; a third was interned for applying for a passport, despite posing "no practical risk" according to the spreadsheet. In general, the subjects on the Karakax list all have relatives living abroad, a category that reportedly leads to "almost certain internment". 149 subjects are documented as violating birth control policies. 116 of the subjects are listed without explanation as "untrustworthy"; for 88 of these, this "untrustworthy" label is the only reason listed for internment. Younger men, in particular, are often listed as "untrustworthy person born in a certain decade". 24 subjects are accused of formal crimes, including six terrorism-related allegations. Most of the subjects have been released, or scheduled for release, following the end of their one-year internment term; however, some of these are recommended for release into "industrial park employment", raising concerns about possible forced labor.

Xinjiang Police Files hack

The 'Xinjiang Police Files', a large body of police files derived from data found in a hack of a local computer server, was sent to the German anthropologist Adrian Zenz, who works for the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Zenz has been sanctioned by the Chinese government since 2021. He has been instrumental in exposing the camp system in Xinjiang. The files and some English translations are partly accessible via their special homepage set up by this foundation or via the links to an academic repository in Zenz' article in the Journal of the European Association for Chinese Studies.

The data was evaluated by journalists from 14 media companies worldwide, including the British BBC, Le Monde in France and El País in Spain. In Germany, Bayerischer Rundfunk and Der Spiegel examined and researched the data.

According to the evaluation of a number of digital forensic scientists and other experts, the Xinjiang Police Files come from the computers of the Chinese authorities. It is the largest data leak on Chinese state-run re-education camps that has been made public outside of China to date.

In May 2022, the BBC published summaries of the Xinjiang Police Files. The Xinjiang Police Files were published during the first visit by a UN human rights commissioner to China in 14 years. By combining the photographs of some 5,000 Uyghurs contained in the data with other data in the hack, details of over 2,800 detentions emerged. Other documents in the leak included police protocols for running an internment camp.

Camp facilities

In urban areas, most of the camps are converted from existing vocational schools, CCP schools, ordinary schools or other official buildings, while in suburban or rural areas the majority of camps were specially built for the purposes of re-education. These camps are guarded by armed forces or special police and equipped with prison-like gates, surrounding walls, security fences, surveillance systems, watchtowers, guard rooms, and facilities for armed police.

While there is no public, verifiable data for the number of camps, there have been various attempts to document suspected camps based on satellite imagery and government documents. On 15 May 2017, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington, DC-based think tank, released a list of 73 government bids related to re-education facilities. On 1 November 2018, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) reported on suspected camps in 28 locations. On 29 November 2018, Reuters and Earthrise Media reported 39 suspected camps. The East Turkistan National Awakening Movement reported an even larger numbers of camps.

In a 2018 report from US government-funded Radio Free Asia, Awat County (Awati) was said to have three re-education camps. An RFA listener provided a copy of a "confidentiality agreement" requiring re-education camp detainees to not discuss the workings of the camps, and said local residents were instructed to tell members of re-education camp inspection teams visiting No. 2 Re-education Camp that there was only one camp in the county. The RFA listener also said the No. 2 Re-education Camp had transferred thousands of detainees and removed barbed wire from the perimeter of the camp walls.

Boarding schools for the children of detainees

The detention of Uyghurs and other ethnic minorities has allegedly left many children without their parents. The Chinese government has allegedly held these children at a variety of institutions and schools colloquially known as "boarding schools", although not all are residential institutions, that serve as de facto orphanages. In September 2018, the Associated Press reported that thousands of boarding schools were being built. According to the Chinese Department of Education children as young as eight are enrolled in these schools.

According to Adrian Zenz and BBC in 2019, children of detained parents in boarding schools were penalized for failing to speak Mandarin Chinese and prevented from exercising their religion. In a paper published in the Journal of Political Risk, Zenz calls the effort a "systematic campaign of social re-engineering and cultural genocide". Human Rights Watch said that the children detained at child welfare facilities and boarding schools were held without parental consent or access. In December 2019, The New York Times reported that approximately 497,000 elementary and junior high school students were enrolled in these boarding schools. They also reported that students are only allowed to see family members once every two weeks and that they were forbidden from speaking the Uyghur language.


Camp locations identified by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and Australian Strategic Policy Institute

Numerous locations have been identified as re-education camps. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute, whose funding is primarily from the Australian Government with overseas funding primarily from the US State Department and Department of Defense, had identified more than 380 "suspected detention facilities".

  • Camps in Akto County (Aktu, Aketao), Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture
  • Four detention centers in Aksu City (Akesu), Aksu Prefecture
  • Artux City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center in Artux in Kizilsu Prefecture
  • Jiashi County Secondary Vocational School (伽师县中等职业学校) in Payzawat County (Jiashi), Kashgar Prefecture
  • Three detention centers in Kalpin County (Kelpin, Keping), Aksu Prefecture
  • Eight vocational training centres in Lop County (Luopu), Hotan Prefecture
    • Lop County No. 4 Vocational Skills Education and Training Center

Information reasonably indicates that this "re-education" internment camp, which is often called a Vocational Skills Education and Training Center, is providing prison labor to nearby manufacturing entities in Xinjiang. CBP identified forced labor indicators including highly coercive/unfree recruitment, work and life under duress, and restriction of movement.
(statement of the US Department of Homeland Security)

Camp detainees

The mass internment of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in the camps has become the largest-scale arbitrary detention of ethnic and religious minorities since World War II.

Many media outlets have reported that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, as well as Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other ethnic minorities, are held in the camps. Radio Free Asia, a news service funded by the US government, estimated in January 2018 that 120,000 members of the Uyghurs were being held in political re-education camps in Kashgar prefecture alone at the time. In 2018, local government authorities in Qira County expected to have almost 12,000 detainees in vocational camps and detention centres and some projects related to the centres outstripped budgetary limits. Reports of Uyghurs living or studying abroad being detained upon return to Xinjiang are common, which is thought to be connected to the re-education camps. Many living abroad have gone for years without being able to contact their family members still in Xinjiang, who may be detainees.: 1:23 

Uyghur political figure Rebiya Kadeer, who has been in exile since 2005, has had as many as 30 relatives detained or disappeared, including her sisters, brothers, children, grandchildren, and siblings, according to Amnesty International. It is unclear when they were taken away. In February 2021, two of Kadeer's granddaughters appeared in a video on Twitter denying abuses and telling her not to be "fooled again by those bad foreigners".

On 13 July 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay, an ethnic Kazakh Chinese national and former employee of the Chinese state, appeared in a court in the city of Zharkent, Kazakhstan for being accused of illegally crossing the border between the two countries. During the trial she talked about her forced work at a re-education camp for 2,500 ethnic Kazakhs. Her lawyer argued that if she is extradited to China, she would face the death penalty for exposing re-education camps in Kazakh court. Her testimony for the re-education camps have become the focus of a court case in Kazakhstan, which is also testing the country's ties with Beijing. On 1 August 2018, Sauytbay was released with a six-month suspended sentence and directed to regularly check-in with police. She applied for asylum in Kazakhstan to avoid deportation to China. Kazakhstan refused her application. On 2 June 2019 she flew to Sweden where she was subsequently granted political asylum.

According to a Radio Free Asia interview with an officer at the Onsu County police station, as of August 2018, 30,000 persons, or about one in six Uyghurs in the county (approximately 16% of the overall population of the county), were detained in re-education camps.

Russian-American Gene Bunin created the Xinjiang Victims Database to collect public testimonies on people detained in the camps, and its content had been referenced in articles by Al Jazeera, RFA, Foreign Policy, the Uyghur Human Rights Project, Amnesty and Human Rights Watch. On 14 January 2023, the database included photos of Hong Kong actors Andy Lau and Chow Yun-fat in a list of police officers responsible for rounding up “thousands of documented victims”, which aroused suspicion on Twitter about the database's authenticity.

Writing in the Journal of Political Risk in July 2019, independent researcher Adrian Zenz estimated an upper speculative limit to the number of people detained in Xinjiang re-education camps at 1.5 million. In November 2019, Adrian Zenz estimated that the number of internment camps in Xinjiang had surpassed 1,000. In November 2019, George Friedman estimated that 1 in 10 Uyghurs are being detained in re-education camps.

When the BBC was invited to the camps in June 2019, officials there told them the detainees were "almost criminals" who could choose "between a judicial hearing or education in the de-extremification facilities". The Globe and Mail reported in September 2019 that some Han Chinese and Christian Uyghurs in Xinjiang who had disputes with local authorities or expressed politically unwelcome thoughts had also been sent to the camps.

Anonymous drone footage posted on YouTube in September 2019 showed kneeling blindfolded inmates that an analyst at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute said may have been an inmate transfer at a train station near Korla and may have been from a re-education camp.

Anar Sabit, an ethnic Kazakh from Kuytun living in Canada who was imprisoned in 2017 after returning home following the death of her father, was detained for having gone abroad. She found other minorities were interned for offenses such as using forbidden technology (WhatsApp, a V.P.N.), travelling abroad, but that even a Uyghur working for the Communist party as a propagandist could be interned for the offense of having been booked in a hotel by an airline with others who were under suspicion.

According to an anonymous Uyghur local government employee quoted in an article by US government-sponsored Radio Free Asia, during Ramadan 2020 (23 April to 23 May), residents of Makit County (Maigaiti), Kashgar Prefecture were told they could face punishment for religious fasting including being sent to a re-education camp.

According to a Human Rights Watch report published in January 2021, the official figure of people put through this system is 1.3 million.

Waterboarding, mass rape, and sexual abuse are reported to be among the forms of torture used as part of the indoctrination process at the camps.

Testimonies about treatment

Officially, the camps are known as Vocational Education and Training Centers, informally as "schools", and described by some officials as "hospitals" where inmates are treated for the "disease" of "extremist ideology". According to internment officials quoted in Xinjiang Daily, (a Communist Party-run newspaper) while "requirements for our students" are "strict ... we have a gentle attitude, and put our hearts into treating them". Being in one "is actually like staying at a boarding school." The newspaper quoted a former inmates as stating during his internment he had realized he had been "increasingly drifting away from 'home,'" under the influence of extremism. "With the government's help and education, I've returned. ... "our lives are improving every day. No matter who you are, first and foremost you are a Chinese citizen.'" Testimonies in non-Communist Party literature from freed inmates have been considerably different.

Kayrat Samarkand, a Kazakh citizen who migrated from Xinjiang, was detained in one of the internment camps in the region for three months for visiting neighboring Kazakhstan. On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day as Kayrat Samarkand was freed from custody. After his release, Samarkand said that he faced endless brainwashing and humiliation, and that he was forced to study communist propaganda for hours every day and chant slogans giving thanks and wishing for a long life to Xi Jinping.[better source needed]

Mihrigul Tursun, a Uyghur woman detained in China, after escaping one of these camps, talked of beatings and torture. After moving to Egypt, she traveled to China in 2015 to spend time with her family and was immediately detained and separated from her infant children. When Tursun was released three months later, one of the triplets had died and the other two had developed health problems. Tursun said the children had been operated on. She was arrested for the second time about two years later. Several months later, she was detained the third time and spent three months in a cramped prison cell with 60 other women, having to sleep in turns, use the toilet in front of security cameras and sing songs praising the Chinese Communist Party.

Tursun said she and other inmates were forced to take unknown medication, including pills that made them faint and a white liquid that caused bleeding in some women and loss of menstruation in others. Tursun said nine women from her cell died during her three months there. One day, Tursun recalled, she was led into a room and placed in a high chair, and her legs and arms were locked in place. "The authorities put a helmet-like thing on my head, and each time I was electrocuted, my whole body would shake violently and I would feel the pain in my veins," Tursun said in a statement read by a translator. "I don't remember the rest. White foam came out of my mouth, and I began to lose consciousness," Tursun said. "The last word I heard them saying is that you being an Uyghur is a crime." She was eventually released so that she could take her children to Egypt, but she was ordered to return to China. Once in Cairo, Tursun contacted U.S. authorities and, in September, went to the United States and settled in Virginia. China's Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying has stated that Tursun was taken into custody by police on "suspicion of inciting ethnic hatred and discrimination" for a period lasting 20 days, but denies that Tursun was detained in a re-education camp.

Former inmates say that they are required to learn to sing the national anthem of China and communist songs. Punishments, like being placed in handcuffs for hours, waterboarding, or being strapped to "tiger chair" (a metal contraption) for long periods of time, are allegedly used on those who fail to follow.

Anar Sabit, a cooperative inmate who had a relatively minor offense of foreign travel, described her confinement in the women's section as prison-like and marked by bureaucratic rigidity but said that she was not beaten or tortured . Before and after her internment, Sabit said that she experienced what Chinese sometimes call gui da qiang, or 'ghost walls' "that confuse and entrap travelers". After her release from internment, she said that she remains a "focus person" in her hometown of Kuytun where she lives with her uncle's family. She described the town as resembling an "open air prison" due to the careful monitoring by cameras, sensors, police, and the neighborhood residential committee, and that she feels shunned by almost all friends and family and worries that she will endanger anyone who helps her. After Sabit moved out of her uncle's house, Sabit lived in the dormitory of the neighborhood residential committee who she said threatened to return her to the internment camp for speaking out of turn.

According to detainees, they were also forced to drink alcohol and eat pork, which are forbidden in Islam. Some reportedly received unknown medicines while others attempted suicide. There have also been deaths reported due to unspecified causes. Detainees have alleged widespread sexual abuse, including forced abortions, forced use of contraceptive devices and compulsory sterilization. It has been reported that Han officials have been assigned to reside in the homes of Uyghurs who are in the camps. Rushan Abbas of the Campaign for Uyghurs argues that the actions of the Chinese government amount to genocide according to United Nations definitions which are laid out in the Genocide Convention.

According to Time, Sarsenbek Akaruli, 45, a veterinarian and trader from Ili, Xinjiang, was arrested in Xinjiang on 2 November 2017. As of November 2019, he is still in a detention camp. According to his wife Gulnur Kosdaulet, Akaruli was put in the camp after police found the banned messaging app WhatsApp on his cell phone. Kosdaulet, a citizen of neighboring Kazakhstan, has traveled to Xinjiang on four occasions to search for her husband but could not get help from friends in the Chinese Communist Party. Kosdaulet said of her friends, "Nobody wanted to risk being recorded on security cameras talking to me in case they ended up in the camps themselves."

In May to June 2017, a woman native to Maralbexi County (Bachu) named Mailikemu Maimati (also spelled Mamiti) was detained in the county's re-education camp according to her husband Mirza Imran Baig. He said that after her release, she and their young son were not given their passports by Chinese authorities.

According to Time, former prisoner Bakitali Nur, 47, native of Khorgos, Xinjiang on the Sino-Kazakh border, was arrested because authorities were suspicious of his frequent trips abroad. He reported spending a year in a cell with seven other prisoners. The prisoners sat on stools seventeen hours a day, were not allowed to talk or move and were under constant surveillance. Movement carried the punishment of being put into stress positions for hours. After release, he was forced to make daily self-criticisms, report on his plans and work for negligible payment in government factories. In May 2019, he escaped to Kazakhstan. Nur summarized his experience in jail and under constant monitoring after his release saying, "The entire system is designed to suppress us."

According to Radio Free Asia, Ghalipjan, a 35 year old Uyghur man from Shanshan/Pichan County who was married and had a five-year-old son, died in a re-education camp on 21 August 2018. Authorities reported his death was due to heart attack, but the head of the Ayagh neighborhood committee said that he was beaten to death by a police officer. His family was not allowed to carry out Islamic funeral rites.

According to the Xinjiang Police Files, Chen Quanguo issued a shooting order for detainees attempting to escape in 2018.

In June 2018, President of the World Uyghur Congress (WUC) Dolkun Isa was told that his mother Ayhan Memet, 78, had died two months earlier while in detention at a "political re-education camp".: 1:45  The WUC president was unsure if she had been incarcerated in one of the many "political re-education camps".

According to a 2018 report in The New York Times, Abdusalam Muhemet, 41, who ran a restaurant in Hotan before fleeing China in 2018, said he spent seven months in prison and more than two months in a camp in Hotan in 2015 without ever being criminally charged. Muhemet said that on most days, the inmates at the camp would assemble to hear long lectures by officials who warned them not to embrace Islamic radicalism, support Uyghur independence or defy the Communist Party.

In an interview with Radio Free Asia, an officer at the Kuqa (Kuchar, Kuche) County Police Department reported that from June to December 2018, 150 people at the No. 1 Internment Camp in the Yengisher district of Kuqa county had died, corroborating earlier reports attributed to Himit Qari, former area police chief.

In August 2020, the BBC released texts and a video smuggled out of a re-education camp by Merdan Ghappar, a former model of Uyghur heritage. Mergan had been allowed access to personal effects, and used a phone to take videos of the camp he is interned in.

In February 2021, the BBC issued further eyewitness accounts of mass rape and torture in the camps. Sayragul Sauytbay told the BBC as a teacher forced to work in the camps that "rape was common" and the guards "picked the girls and young women they wanted and took them away". She also described a woman who was brought to make a forced confession in front of 100 other detainees while the police took turns to rape her as she cried out for help. In 2018, a Globe and Mail interview with Sauytbay found that she did not personally see violence at the camp, but did witness hunger and a complete lack of freedom. Tursunay Ziawudun, a Uyghur who fled to Kazakhstan and then the US, told the BBC that she was raped three times in the camps and kicked in the abdomen during interrogations. In a 2020 interview with BuzzFeed News, Ziawudun reported that she "wasn't beaten or abused" while inside, but was instead subjected to long interrogations, forced to watch propaganda, kept in cold conditions with poor food, and had her hair cut.

Forced labor

Adrian Zenz reported that the re-education camps also function as forced labor camps in which Uyghurs and Kazakhs produce various products for export, especially those made from cotton grown in Xinjiang. The growing of cotton is central to the industry of the region as "43 percent of Xinjiang's exports are apparel, footwear, or textiles". In 2018, 84% of China's cotton was produced in the Xinjiang province. Since cotton is grown and processed into textiles in Xinjiang, a November 2019 article from The Diplomat said that "the risk of forced labor exists at multiple steps in the creation of a product".

Academics Zhun Xu and Fangfei Lin write that the conclusion of forced labor in cotton production in Xinjiang is insufficiently supported. They cite the historic significance of Uyghur agricultural workers as a long-standing labor force for manual cotton harvesting and staffing companies' widespread recruitment of Uyghur workers due to lower travel costs. In their view, "he labor demand of Uyghur seasonal cotton pickers in south Xinjiang is largely decided by its relatively low degree of agricultural capitalization, not due to the 'special treatment' towards labor migrants of a certain ethnic minority."

In 2018, the Financial Times reported that the Yutian / Keriya county vocational training centre, among the largest of the Xinjiang re-education camps, had opened a forced labour facility including eight factories spanning shoemaking, mobile phone assembly and tea packaging, giving a base monthly salary of CN¥1,500. Between 2016 and 2018, the centre expanded 269 percent in total area.

The Australian Strategic Policy Institute reported that from 2017 to 2019 more than 80,000 Uyghurs were shipped elsewhere in China for factory jobs that "strongly suggest forced labour". Conditions of these factories were consistent with the stipulations of forced labor as defined by the International Labour Organization.

In 2021, former supplier for Nike, Esquel Group, sued the United States Government for listing it on a sanction list for forced labor allegations in Xinjiang. It was later removed from the sanction list due to lack of evidence provided by the US Commerce department.

In October 2021, the CBC in collaboration with the Investigative Reporting Project Italy along with The Guardian reported on the export of tomato products from Xinjiang and tied to forced labor by the Uyghurs. The report identified tomato products being exported to other countries such as Italy to be repackaged for sale in other markets such as Canada.

In June 2021, human rights reports indicated that costs of solar modules had been depressed in recent years due to Chinese forced labor practices in the solar module and wind turbine exports industry. Globally, China dominated manufacturing, installation and exports in the field. The practice of forced labor was blamed for the bankruptcy of firms in the US and German solar industries, multiple times, over the decade 2010–2020. In one report, upon declaring a bankruptcy, the cost of raw materials for manufacturing panels was suggested to be 30% of the total manufacturing costs. It was argued that China do not pay labor costs.

Notable detainees

International reactions

Reactions at the UN

On 8 July 2019, 22 countries issued a statement in which they called for an end to mass detentions in China and expressed their concerns about widespread surveillance and repression. 50 countries issued a counter-statement, reportedly coordinated by Algeria, criticizing the practice of "politicizing human rights issues", stating "China has invited a number of diplomats, international organizations officials and journalist to Xinjiang" and that "what they saw and heard in Xinjiang completely contradicted what was reported in the media." The counter-statement also commended China's "remarkable achievements in the field of human rights", claiming that "safety and security has returned to Xinjiang and the fundamental human rights of people of all ethnic groups there are safeguarded." Qatar formally withdrew its name from the counter-statement on 18 July, six days after it was published, expressing a desire "to maintain a neutral stance and we offer our mediation and facilitation services."

In October 2019, 23 countries issued a joint statement urging China to "uphold its national laws and international obligations and commitments to respect human rights, including freedom of religion or belief," urging China to refrain from "arbitrary detention of Uyghurs and members of other Muslim communities.

In response, on the same day, 54 countries (including China itself) issued a joint statement reiterating that the work of human rights in the United Nations should be conducted in a "non-politicized manner", and supporting China's Xinjiang policies. The statement spoke positively of the results of counter-terrorism and de-radicalization measures in Xinjiang and held that these measures have effectively safeguarded the basic human rights of people of all ethnic groups." Civil society groups in Muslim-majority countries with governments that have supported China's policies in Xinjiang have been noted to be uncomfortable with their governments' stance and have organized boycotts, protests, and media campaigns concerning Uyghurs.

In October 2020, Axios reported that more countries at the UN joined the condemnation of China over Xinjiang abuses. The total number of countries that denounced China increased to 39, while the total number of countries that defended China decreased to 45. Notably, 16 countries that defended China in 2019 did not do so in 2020.

At the 46th session of the Human Rights Council, Cuba delivered a joint statement supporting China, signed by 64 countries.

Public statements of support and condemnation of Chinese policies in Xinjiang, based on joint letters at the UN
Country Position in July 2019 Position in October 2019 Position in October 2020 Position in March 2021
Albania Condemn Condemn Condemn
Algeria Support Support
Angola Support Support Support
Antigua and Barbuda Support Support
Australia Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Austria Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Bahrain Support Support Support
Bangladesh Support Support
Belarus Support Support Support Support
Belgium Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Bolivia Support Support Support
Bosnia and Herzegovina Condemn Condemn
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria Condemn Condemn
Burkina Faso Support Support Support
Burundi Support Support Support Support
Cabo Verde
Cambodia Support Support Support Support
Cameroon Support Support Support Support
Canada Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Central African Republic Support Support Support
Chad Support
China China China China China
Comoros Support Support Support Support
Congo Support Support Support
Democratic Republic of the Congo Support Support
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire 
Croatia Condemn Condemn
Cuba Support Support Support Support
Denmark Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Djibouti Support Support Support
Dominica Support Support
Dominican Republic
Egypt Support Support Support Support
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea Support Support Support Support
Eritrea Support Support Support Support
Estonia Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Ethiopia Support
Finland Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
France Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Gabon Support Support Support Support
Gambia Support
Germany Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Grenada Support Support
Guinea Support Support Support
Guinea-Bissau Support Support Support
Haiti Condemn Condemn
The Vatican
Honduras Condemn Condemn
Iceland Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Iran Support Support Support Support
Iraq Support Support Support Support
Ireland Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Italy Condemn Condemn
Japan Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Kiribati Support Support
North Korea Support Support Support Support
South Korea
Kuwait Support
Laos Support Support Support Support
Latvia Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Lebanon Support
Lesotho Support
Liechtenstein Condemn Condemn Condemn
Lithuania Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Luxembourg Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Madagascar Support
Marshall Islands Condemn Condemn
Mauritania Support Support
Monaco Condemn Condemn
Morocco Support Support
Mozambique Support Support Support Support
Myanmar Support Support Support Support
Nauru Condemn Condemn
Nepal Support Support Support Support
Netherlands Condemn Condemn Condemn
New Zealand Condemn Condemn Condemn
Nicaragua Support Support Support
Niger Support Support
Nigeria Support Support
North Macedonia Condemn Condemn
Norway Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Oman Support Support Support
Pakistan Support Support Support Support
Palau Condemn Condemn
Palestine Support Support Support
Papua New Guinea Support
Philippines Support Support
Poland Condemn
Russia Support Support Support Support
San Marino
São Tomé and Príncipe Support
Saudi Arabia Support Support Support
Serbia Support Support Support
Sierra Leone Support Support
Slovakia Condemn Condemn
Slovenia Condemn Condemn
Solomon Islands Support Support
Somalia Support Support
South Africa
South Sudan Support Support Support Support
Spain Condemn Condemn Condemn
Sri Lanka Support Support Support Support
Sudan Support Support Support Support
Suriname Support
Sweden Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
Switzerland Condemn Condemn Condemn
Syria Support Support Support Support
Tajikistan Support Support
Tanzania Support Support Support
Togo Support Support Support Support
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia Support
Turkmenistan Support
Uganda Support Support Support Support
United Arab Emirates Support Support Support Support
United Kingdom Condemn Condemn Condemn Condemn
United States of America Condemn Condemn Condemn
Uzbekistan Support
Venezuela Support Support Support Support
Yemen Support Support Support
Zambia Support Support Support
Zimbabwe Support Support Support Support
Date Support Condemn
July 2019 50 (including China) 22
October 2019 54 (including China) 23
October 2020 45 (including China) 39

Reactions by international organizations

Governmental organizations

 United Nations

  • On 21 May 2018, during the resumed session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations in the United Nations, Kelley Currie, the United States representative to the United Nations for economic and social affairs, raised the issue of mass detention of Uyghurs in re-education camps, and she said that "reports of mass incarcerations in the Xinjiang were documented by looking at Chinese procurement requests on Chinese websites requesting Chinese companies to tender offers to build political re-education camps".
  • On 10 August 2018, United Nations human rights experts expressed alarm over many credible reports that China had detained a million or more ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Gay McDougall, a member of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, said that "In the name of combating religious extremism, China had turned Xinjiang into something resembling a massive internment camp, shrouded in secrecy, a sort of no-rights zone".
  • On 10 September 2018, UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet called on China to ease restrictions on her and her office's team, urging China to allow observers into Xinjiang and expressing concern about the situation there. She said, "The UN rights group had shown that Uyghurs and other Muslims are being detained in camps across Xinjiang and I expect discussions with Chinese officials to begin soon".
  • In June 2019, UN counter-terrorism chief Vladimir Voronkov visited Xinjiang and found nothing incriminating at the camps.
  • On 1 November 2019, ten UN Special Rapporteurs together with vice-chair of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention and Chair-Rapporteur of the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances released a report on the effect and application of the Counter-Terrorism Law of China and its Regional Implementing Measures in Xinjiang, which states that:

    The De-Extremism Regulations have been criticised by UN Special Procedures mandates for their lack of compliance with international human rights standards. Following the introduction of those laws, an estimated million Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims have reportedly been sent to internment facilities under the guise of "counterterrorism and de-extremism" policies since 2016. (p.4) ...... In this context, previous communications by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention have voiced their concern that the "re-education facilities", sometimes termed "vocational training centres", due to their coercive character, amount to detention centres. It is alleged that between 1 million to 1.5 million ethnic Uyghurs and other minorities in Xinjiang may have been arbitrary forced into these facilities, where there have been allegations of deaths in custody, physical and psychological abuse and torture, as well as lack of access to medical care. It is also reported that in several cases they have been denied free contact with their families and friends or been unable to inform them of their location and denied their basic freedom of movement.(p.8)

  • In June 2020, nearly 50 UN independent experts had repeatedly communicated with the Government of the People's Republic of China their alarm regarding the repression of fundamental freedoms in China. They had also raised their concerns regarding a range of issues of grave concern, including the collective repression of the population, especially religious and ethnic minorities in Xinjiang and Tibet.
  • In March 2021, sixteen UN human right experts raised grave concerns about the "alleged detention and forced labour of Muslim Uyghurs in China". The experts were appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, and several of them said they had "received information that connected over 150 domestic Chinese and foreign domiciled companies to serious allegations of human rights abuses against Uyghur workers". The experts also called for unrestricted access to China in order to conduct "fact-finding missions", meanwhile urging "global and domestic companies to closely scrutinize their supply chains".

 European Union

  • On 11 September 2018, Federica Mogherini, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, raised the re-education camps issue in European Parliament. She said:

    The most outstanding disagreement we have with China concerns the human rights situation in China, as underlined in your Report. We also focused on the situation in Xinjiang, especially the expansion of political re-education camps. And we discussed the detention of human rights defenders, including particular cases.

  • On 19 December 2019, the European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution condemning the mass incarceration of Uyghurs and calling on EU companies with supply chains in the region to ensure that they are not complicit with crimes against humanity.
  • On 17 December 2020, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that strongly condemns China over allegations of forced labor by ethnic and religious minorities. In the statement, the EU body said Parliament "strongly condemns the government-led system of forced labor, in particular the exploitation of Uyghur, ethnic Kazakh and Kyrgyz, and other Muslim minority groups, in factories both within and outside of internment camps in Xinjiang, as well as the transfer of forced laborers to other Chinese administrative divisions, and the fact that well-known European brands and companies have been benefiting from the use of forced labor."
  • On 22 March 2021, the European Union, joined by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, imposed sanctions on four senior Chinese officials and the Public Security Bureau of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps over the human rights abuses of Uyghurs in Xinjiang. This was the first sanction by the EU against China since the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre.

World Bank

  • On 11 November 2019, the World Bank issued a statement:

    In line with standard practice, immediately after receiving a series of serious allegations in August 2019 in connection with the Xinjiang Technical and Vocational Education and Training Project, the Bank launched a fact-finding review, and World Bank senior managers traveled to Xinjiang to gather information directly. After receiving the allegations, no disbursements were made on the project. The team conducted a thorough review of project documents... The review did not substantiate the allegations. In light of the risks associated with the partner schools, which are widely dispersed and difficult to monitor, the scope and footprint of the project is being reduced. Specifically, the project component that involves the partner schools in Xinjiang is being closed.

Organization for Islamic Cooperation

  • On 1 March 2019, the OIC produced a document which "commends the efforts of the People's Republic of China in providing care to its Muslim citizens."
  • A coalition of American Muslim groups criticized the OIC's decision and accused member states of being influenced by Chinese power. The groups included the Council on American-Islamic Relations.

Human rights organisations

  • On 10 September 2017, Human Rights Watch released a report that said "The Chinese government should immediately free people held in unlawful 'political education' centers in Xinjiang and shut them down."
  • On 9 September 2018, Human Rights Watch released a 117-page report, "'Eradicating Ideological Viruses': China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims", which accused China of the systematic mass detention of tens of thousands of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslims in political re-education camps without being charged or tried and presented new evidence of the Chinese government's mass arbitrary detention, torture, and mistreatment, and the increasingly pervasive controls on daily life. The report also urged foreign governments to pursue a range of multilateral and unilateral actions against China for its actions, including "targeted sanctions" against those responsible.
  • On 7 January 2020, CAIR National Executive Director Nihad Awad condemned a tweet by the US Chinese embassy, saying that China was openly admitting to and celebrating forced sterilizations and abortions of Muslim Uyghur women by saying it had "emancipated" them from being "baby-making machines".
  • Amnesty International published a dedicated website and an extensive report in 2021. Amnesty estimates up to 1 million prisoners and concludes "The evidence Amnesty International has gathered provides a factual basis for the conclusion that the Chinese government has committed at least the following crimes against humanity: imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law; torture; and persecution." Their full report includes recommendations to the Chinese government, the UN and the international community in general.

Reactions by countries


  • In September 2019, Australian Foreign Minister Marise Payne stated, "I have previously raised Australia's concerns about reports of mass detentions of Uyghurs and other Muslim peoples in Xinjiang. We have consistently called for China to cease the arbitrary detention of Uyghurs and other Muslim groups. We have raised these concerns—and we will continue to raise them—both bilaterally and in relevant international meetings."


  • In January 2020, the Bahrain Council of Representatives called on the international community to protect Uyghur Muslims in China and "expressed deep concern over the inhumane and painful conditions to which Uyghur Muslims in China are subjected, including the detention of more than one million Muslims in mass detention camps, denial of their most basic rights, the removal of their children, wives and families, their prevention of prayer, worship and religious practices, confronting murder, ill-treatment and torture."


  • On 5 March 2021, a group of 65 member states—led by Belarus—expressed their support of China's Xinjiang policy and opposed the "unfounded allegations against China based on disinformation" at the 44th session of Human Rights Council.


  • On 15 March 2021, the Walloon Parliament voted to approve a motion condemning the "unacceptable" practices introduced by the Chinese government, including the exploitation of Uyghurs and all other ethnic minorities, in Xinjiang. All parties voted in favor, with the exception of the Workers' Party, which abstained.


  • On 22 February 2021, the Canadian House of Commons voted 266–0 to approve a motion that formally recognizes China is committing genocide against its Muslim minorities. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his cabinet did not vote.


  • On 6 October 2020, Cuba delivered a joint statement with 45 other countries voicing their support of China's measures in Xinjiang.


  • Egypt signed both statements at the UN (in July and October 2019) that supported China's Xinjiang policies. Egypt has been accused of deporting Uyghurs to China.


The French authorities are examining very carefully all of the testimonies and documents disseminated by the press over the past several days, indicating the existence of a system of internment camps in Xinjiang and a widespread policy of repression in this region. As we have publicly indicated on several occasions, as have our European partners, notably at the UN, within the framework of the most recent UN Human Rights Council sessions, we call on the Chinese authorities to put an end to mass arbitrary detentions in camps and to invite the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit Xinjiang as soon possible to assess the situation in this region.


  • In December 2018, leaders of the Muslim organization Muhammadiyah issued an open letter citing reports of violence against the "weak and innocent" community of Uyghurs and asking Beijing to explain. Soon after, Beijing responded by inviting more than a dozen top Indonesian religious leaders to the Xinjiang province and camps, and criticism greatly diminished. Since then, Indonesia's largest Muslim organizations have purportedly treated reports of widespread human rights violations in Xinjiang with skepticism, dismissing them as U.S. propaganda.
  • In October 2022, the Indonesian delegation for the UNHCR voted against debate in the chamber on the topic of the treatment of Uyghurs in Xinjiang as it "will not yield meaningful progress", but Ambassador Febrian Ruddyard also stated, "As the world's largest Muslim country and a vibrant democracy, we cannot close our eyes to the plight of our Muslim brothers and sisters."


  • In a December 2016 report, the research unit of the Iranian state-owned television's external services said that China is not opposed to Muslims, but instead to pro-Saudi radical ideology. In August 2020, Ali Motahari, a former member of the Iranian Parliament, tweeted that the Iranian government has kept silent about the situation of Muslims in China because the government of Iran needs China's economic support. He said that this silence has been humiliating for the Islamic Republic. Critics of Motahari responded that China was opposed to Wahabism, and had no problem with Islam or Chinese Muslims.
  • Iran signed an October 2019 letter that publicly expressed support for China's treatment of Uyghurs.



NPR reported that "Kazakhstan and its neighbors in the mostly Muslim region of Central Asia that have benefited from Chinese investment aren't speaking up for the Muslims inside internment camps in China".
  • In November 2017, Kazakhstan's Ambassador to China Shahrat Nuryshev met with Chinese Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Li Huilai regarding Kazakh diaspora issues.
  • On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day Samarkand, a Kazakhstan citizen, was released from re-education camp. From 17 to 19 April, Kazakh First Deputy Foreign Minister Mukhtar Tleuberdi visited Xinjiang to meet with local officials.


  • On 20 May 2021, the Seimas passed a non-binding resolution condemning China's treatment of Uyghurs.


  • In September 2020, the Muhyiddin government confirmed that it would not extradite ethnic Uyghurs to China if Beijing requests it, continuing the policy set by the Mahathir administration. Although it is the government of Malaysia's stance not to get involved in Chinese internal affairs, it stated that the oppression of Uyghurs in the country could not be denied. Mohd Redzuan Md Yusof, minister in the Prime Minister's Department also stated that his government would grant free passage to those refugees who wished to settle in a third country.


 New Zealand

  • On 6 May 2021, the New Zealand Parliament passed a motion condemning China's treatment of the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, but fell short of calling it genocide, due to opposition from the governing Labour Party, who would not pass the motion unless the term 'genocide' was removed.
  • New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has raised the issue of the Uyghurs on numerous occasions, including in her 2019 meeting with CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping. She did not detail exactly what was said. In July 2019, New Zealand Foreign Minister Winston Peters, asked why New Zealand had signed the letter to the president of the United Nations Human Rights Council criticizing Beijing for its treatment of ethnic Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region stated, "Because we believe in human rights, we believe in freedom and we believe in the liberty of personal beliefs and the right to hold them."
  • In 2017, National MP Todd McClay represented his party in Beijing before a dialogue organised by the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party. McClay also referred to the Xinjiang internment camps as "vocational training centers" in line with CCP talking points.


  • Pakistan signed both statements at the UN (in July and October 2019) that supported China's Xinjiang policies.
  • On 19 January 2020, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan was asked why he was not more outspoken about the situation of Uyghurs in China. He said that he has not been as outspoken primarily because the human rights situation in Kashmir and Citizenship Amendment Act were problems much larger in scale. He said that the second reason was that China has been a great friend of Pakistan and had helped Pakistan through their toughest time with the economic crisis, so that "the way we deal with China is that when we talk about things, we talk about privately. We do not talk about things with China in public right now because they are very sensitive. That's how they deal with issues."


  • In July 2020, Xi Jinping met with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to express Beijing's "full support" for the two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, saying that "China and Palestine are good brothers, good friends and good partners". Abbas then voiced support for China's "legitimate position on Hong Kong, Xinjiang and other matters concerning China's core interests."
  • After Palestinian ambassador to China Fariz Mehdawi visited Xinjiang in March 2021, he remarked on Chinese state media that he was impressed by the region's infrastructure and upkeep of mosques, saying "if you have to calculate it all, it’s something like 2,000 inhabitants for one mosque. This ratio, we don’t have it in our country. It’s not available anywhere." RFA journalist Shohret Hoshur wrote in response that Mehdawi was neglecting the harsh reality of locals with whom he had met and who had no ability to speak the truth under the watch of officials, adding that his true motivation seemed to be a shared anti-US agenda with China.


  • On 4 February 2019, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said he was not aware of reports about political re-education camps in China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, though he had seen the US actively raising the issue.
  • In July 2019, Russia signed the letter supporting China at the UN Human Rights Council.
  • On 9 October 2019, Lavrov said that "China has repeatedly given explanations concerning the accusations that you have mentioned probably citing our Western colleagues. We have no reason to take any steps other than the procedures that exist at the UN that I mentioned, such as at the Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Reviews."

 Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman has defended China's re-education camps.
  • In February 2019, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman defended China's use of the camps, saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security."
  • Saudi Arabia was among the 24 countries (excluding China) that backed China's position at the UN Human Rights Council in July 2019, and again at the UN General Assembly in October 2020.


  • On 6 November 2018 during the UN Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review of China, Switzerland called on China to close down its detention camps in Xinjiang, to grant the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights unrestricted access to Xinjiang, and to allow an independent UN investigation of the detention camps.
  • On 26 November 2019, the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs called on the Chinese government to address the concerns raised by many states and to allow the UN unhindered access to the region.


  • In December 2019, the Syrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates defended China's actions in Xinjiang days after the US condemnation, stating that it is a "blatant interference by the US in the internal affairs of the People's Republic of China." The statement concluded that "Syria emphasizes the right of China to preserve its sovereignty, people, territorial integrity, and security and protect the security and property of the state and individuals."

 Taiwan (Republic of China)

  • On 2 October 2018 the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Joseph Wu, used the MOFA's official Twitter account to send out a Radio Free Asia article titled "Xinjiang Authorities Secretly Transferring Uyghur Detainees to Jails Throughout China" and stated that, "relocation of Uyghurs to re-education camps around China warrants the world's attention."
  • On 5 July 2019, Joseph Wu, again on Twitter, sent out a BBC News article titled "China Muslims: Xinjiang schools used to separate children from families" and called on China to "Close the camps! Send the children home!"
  • On 18 November 2019, the MOFA's official Twitter sent out a New York Times article titled "'Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims" saying, "This chilling NYTimes expose on the mass detention of Muslims by China is a must-read! Leaked internal documents tell the truth about the crackdown on ethnic minorities in Xinjiang, as well as the 'ruthless & extraordinary campaign' run by senior Communist Party officials."


  • In February 2019, after Turkish media had picked up rumors of Uyghur musician Abdurehim Heyit dying in detention, the Spokesperson for the Turkish Foreign Ministry denounced China for "violating the fundamental human rights of Uyghur Turks and other Muslim communities in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region." In July 2019, Turkish journalists from Milliyet and Aydınlık interviewed Heyit in Ürümqi who denied that Uyghurs had problems in China.
  • In July 2019, Chinese state media reported that when Turkish President Erdoğan visited China, he said, "It is a fact that the people of all ethnicities in Xinjiang are leading a happy life amid China's development and prosperity." Turkish officials then claimed the paraphrase was mistranslated by the Turkish side, saying it should rather have read "hopes the peoples of China's Xinjiang live happily in peace and prosperity". Erdoğan also said that some people were seeking to "abuse" the Xinjiang crisis to jeopardize the "Turkish–Chinese relationship". Some Uyghurs in Turkey have expressed concerns that they may face deportation back to China.

 United Kingdom

  • On 3 July 2018, at a U.K. Parliamentary roundtable, the Rights Practice helped to organize a Parliamentary Round-table on increased repression and forced assimilation in Xinjiang. Rahima Mahmut, an Uyghur singer and human rights activist, gave a personal testimony about the violations suffered by the Uyghur community. Dr. Adrian Zenz, European School of Culture and Theology, (Germany), outlined the evidence of a large scale and sophisticated political re-education network designed to detain people for long periods and which the Chinese government officially denies.
  • On 16 December 2020, the U.K. said there was credible, growing, and troubling evidence of forced labor among Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang. Nigel Adams, Minister of State for Asia told Parliament, "Evidence of forced Uyghur labor within Xinjiang, and in other parts of China, is credible, it is growing and deeply troubling to the UK government." Adams said firms had a duty to ensure their supply chains were free of forced labor.
  • On 12 January 2021, the Foreign Secretary, Dominic Raab, announced if British businesses fail to ensure their supply chains are free of slave labour could face fines. Raab appeared to be targeting China's mistreatment of internees in Xinjiang, saying it was Britain's "moral duty" to respond to the "far-reaching" evidence of human rights abuses being perpetrated in Xinjiang.
  • On 23 April, a group of MPs led by Sir Iain Duncan Smith passed a motion declaring the mass detention of Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang province a genocide. The United Kingdom is the fourth country in the world to make such action. In response, the Chinese Embassy in London said "The unwarranted accusation by a handful of British MPs that there is 'genocide' in Xinjiang is the most preposterous lie of the century..."

 United States

Call for boycott of products from China's Xinjiang province, New York, 2020. The US officially recognized the Chinese government's treatment of the Uyghurs in Xinjiang as a genocide.
  • On 3 April 2018, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio and Representative Chris Smith sent a letter urging Ambassador to China Terry Branstad to launch an investigation into the reported mass detention of Uyghurs in political re-education camps in Xinjiang.
  • On 26 July 2018, Vice President of the United States Mike Pence raised the re-education camps issue at Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom. He said that "Sadly, as we speak as well, Beijing is holding hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghur Muslims in so-called 're-education camps', where they're forced to endure around-the-clock political indoctrination and to denounce their religious beliefs and their cultural identity as the goal."
  • On 26 July 2018, the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, an independent agency of the U.S. government which monitors human rights and rule of law developments in the People's Republic of China, released a report that said as many as a million people are or have been detained in what are being called "political re-education" centers, the largest mass incarceration of an ethnic minority population in the world today. On 27 July 2018, The U.S. Embassy & Consulate in China released Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China, which mentioned the detention of hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghurs and members of other Muslim minority groups in "political re-education camps", and called the Chinese government to release immediately all those arbitrarily detained.
  • On 28 August 2018, U.S. senator Marco Rubio and 16 other members of Congress urged the United States to impose sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act against Chinese officials who are responsible for human rights abuses in Xinjiang. In a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, they called for the sanctions on Chen Quanguo who is the current Communist Party Secretary of the Xinjiang (the highest post in an administrative unit of China) and six other Chinese officials and two businesses that make surveillance equipment in Xinjiang.
  • U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei for his refusal to condemn the Chinese government's repressions against the Uyghurs.
  • On 3 May 2019, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Indo-Pacific Security Affairs Randall Schriver condemns the detention of Uyghurs as concentration camps.
  • On 11 September 2019, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act. On 3 December 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a stronger version of the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act by a vote of 407 to 1. The bill was signed into law on 17 June 2020.
  • On 8 January 2020, the Congressional-Executive Commission on China released its annual report, which stated that Chinese government actions in Xinjiang may constitute crimes against humanity.
  • In April 2020, United States lawmakers from the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, led by Jim McGovern and Marco Rubio, introduced the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act that aims to prevent the importation of Chinese products tied to evidence of unfree labor.
  • In June 2020, Trump's former national security adviser John Bolton claimed that President Donald Trump told Chinese leader Xi Jinping that China's decision to detain Uyghurs in re-education camps was "exactly the right thing to do".
  • US Congress passed the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act which was signed into law by President Trump on 17 June 2020. On 9 July 2020, the Trump administration imposed sanctions and visa restrictions against senior Chinese officials, including Chen Quanguo. The same month, sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Act were levied against the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and related officials including Sun Jinlong and Peng Jiarui.
  • On 14 September 2020, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security blocked imports to the United States of products from four entities in Xinjiang: all products made with labor from the Lop County No. 4 Vocational Skills Education and Training Center; hair products made in the Lop County Hair Product Industrial Park; apparel produced by Yili Zhuowan Garment Manufacturing Co., Ltd. and Baoding LYSZD Trade and Business Co., Ltd; and cotton produced and processed by Xinjiang Junggar Cotton and Linen Co., Ltd.
  • On 22 September 2020, the United States House of Representatives passed the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act.
  • On 19 January 2021, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo designated China's treatment of the Uyghurs a genocide, making the United States the first country in the world to make such a designation. China responded a day later by sanctioning US officials in the outgoing Trump administration, including Pompeo, for their criticisms of China's treatment of the Uyghurs.
  • On 9 July 2021 The US Department of Commerce's Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) added 14 entities, that are based in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and have enabled Beijing's campaign of repression, mass detention, and high-technology surveillance against Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and members of other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions of China (XUAR), where the PRC continues to commit genocide and crimes against humanity, to the Entity List. The Entity List is a tool utilized by BIS to restrict the export, reexport, and transfer (in-country) of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations.

Responses from China

  • The Chinese government officially legalized re-education camps in Xinjiang in October 2018. Prior to that, when international media had asked about the re-education camps, China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that they have not heard of this situation.
  • On 12 August 2018, a Chinese state-run tabloid, Global Times, defended the crackdown in Xinjiang after a U.N. anti-discrimination committee raised concerns over China's treatment of Uyghurs. According to the Global Times, China prevented Xinjiang from becoming 'China's Syria' or 'China's Libya', and local authorities' policies saved countless lives and avoided a 'great tragedy'.
  • On 13 August 2018, at a UN meeting in Geneva, the delegation from China told the United Nations Human Rights Committee that "There is no such thing as re-education centers in Xinjiang and it is completely untrue that China put 1 million Uyghurs into re-education camps". A Chinese delegation said that "Xinjiang citizens, including the Uyghurs, enjoy equal freedom and rights." They said that "Some minor offenders of religious extremism or separatism have been taken to 'vocational education' and employment training centers with a view to assisting in their rehabilitation".
  • On 14 August 2018, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang said "anti-China forces had made false accusations against China for political purposes and a few foreign media outlets misrepresented the committee's discussions and were smearing China's anti-terror and crime-fighting measures in Xinjiang" after a UN human rights committee raised concern over reported mass detentions of ethnic Uyghurs.
  • On 21 August 2018, Liu Xiaoming, the Ambassador of China to the United Kingdom, wrote an article in response to a Financial Times report entitled "Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?". Liu's response said: "The education and training measures taken by the local government of Xinjiang have not only effectively prevented the infiltration of religious extremism and helped those lost in extremist ideas to find their way back, but also provided them with employment training in order to build a better life."
  • On 10 September 2018, China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang condemned a report about the re-education camps issued by Human Rights Watch. He said: "This organisation has always been full of prejudice and distorting facts about China." Geng also added that: "Xinjiang is enjoying overall social stability, sound economic development and harmonious co-existence of different ethnic groups. The series of measures implemented in Xinjiang are meant to improve stability, development, solidarity and people's livelihood, crack down on ethnic separatist activities and violent and terrorist crimes, safeguard national security, and protect people's life and property."
  • On 11 September 2018, China called for UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to "respect its sovereignty", after she urged China to allow monitors into Xinjiang and expressed concern about the situation there. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said: "China urges the U.N. human rights high commissioner and office to scrupulously abide by the mission and principles of the U.N. charter, respect China's sovereignty, fairly and objectively carry out its duties, and not listen to one-sided information".
  • On 16 October 2018, a CCTV prime-time program aired a 15-minute episode on what was termed as Xinjiang's 'Vocational Skills Educational Training Centers', featuring the Muslim internees. Sinologist Manya Koetse documented that it received a mixture of supportive and critical responses on the Sina Weibo social media platform.
  • In March 2019, against the background of the US considering imposing sanctions against Chen Quanguo, who is the region's most senior Communist Party official, Xinjiang governor Shohrat Zakir refuted international claims of concentration camps and re-education camps, instead comparing the institutions to boarding schools.
  • On 18 March 2019, the Chinese government released a white paper about the counter-terrorism, de-radicalization in Xinjiang. The white paper claims "A country under the rule of law, China respects and protects human rights in accordance with the principles of its Constitution." The white paper also argues that Xinjiang has not had violent terrorist cases for more than two consecutive years, extremist penetration has been effectively curbed, and social security has improved significantly.
  • In July 2019, the Chinese government released another white paper that claims "The Uygur people adopted Islam not of their own volition ... but had it forced upon them by religious wars and the ruling class."
  • In November 2019, the Chinese ambassador to the United Kingdom responded to questions about newly leaked documents on Xinjiang by calling the documents "fake news".
  • On 6 December 2019, China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying accused the US of hypocrisy on human rights issues relating to allegations of torture at Guantanamo Bay detention camp.
  • In September 2020, amid condemnation from Western countries, Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping acclaimed the success of his policies in Xinjiang in a 2-day conference expected to set the country's policy for the next years. The Chinese government published a white paper defending its "vocational training centers", claiming that the regional government organised 'employment-oriented training' and labour skills for 1.29 million workers a year from 2014 to 2019.
  • On 7 January 2021, the US Chinese embassy published a tweet that said: "The minds of (Uighur) women in Xinjiang were emancipated and gender equality and reproductive health were promoted, making them no longer baby-making machines," which drew sharp criticism from human rights groups as well as Sam Brownback, the US envoy on international religious freedom. Subsequently, the tweet was deleted and Twitter locked the embassy's account.
  • In March 2021, following sanctions imposed on several Chinese officials by the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, the Chinese government responded with sanctions on several individuals and groups that had criticized China over the camps, including five European Parliament members (among them Reinhard Butikofer, the head of the European Parliament's delegation to China), German scholar Adrian Zenz, and the non-profit Alliance of Democracies Foundation.
  • In June 2021, ProPublica and The New York Times documented a Chinese government-backed propaganda campaign on Twitter and YouTube involving more than 5000 videos analysed. They showed Uyghurs in Xinjiang denying abuses and scolding foreign officials and multinational corporations who had questioned China's human rights record in the province. Some of the videos' accounts were removed on YouTube as part of the company's efforts to combat spam and influence operations.
  • In October 2022, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute documented a number of CCP-backed Uyghur influencers in Xinjiang posting propaganda videos on Chinese and Western social media which pushed back against abuse allegations. Some of the influencers' accounts were suspended on Twitter for alleged inauthenticity.

Response from dissidents

On 10 August 2018, about 47 Chinese intellectuals and others issued an appeal against what they describe as "shocking human rights atrocities perpetrated in Xinjiang".

In December 2019, during the anti-government protests in Hong Kong, a mixed crowd of young and elderly people, numbering around 1,000 and dressed in black and wearing masks to shield their identities, held up signs reading "Free Uyghur, Free Hong Kong" and "Fake 'autonomy' in China results in genocide". They rallied calmly, waving Uyghur flags and posters. The local riot police pepper sprayed demonstrators to disperse the crowd.

International Criminal Court's complaint

In July 2020, the East Turkistan National Awakening Movement and the East Turkistan Government in Exile filed a complaint with the International Criminal Court calling for it to investigate PRC officials for crimes committed against Uyghurs, including allegations of genocide. In December 2020, the International Criminal Court declined to take investigative action against China on the basis of not having jurisdiction over China for most of the alleged crimes.

See also


  1. ^ Also called the Xinjiang re-education camps, and informally called Xinjiang concentration camps.


  1. ^ a b c d "China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees". Human Rights Watch. 10 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b Zenz, Adrian (1 July 2020). "China's Own Documents Show Potentially Genocidal Sterilization Plans in Xinjiang". Foreign Policy.
  3. ^ a b c Stewart, Phil (4 May 2019). "China putting minority Muslims in 'concentration camps,' U.S. says". Reuters. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  4. ^ a b Rappeport, Alan; Wong, Edward (4 May 2018). "In Push for Trade Deal, Trump Administration Shelves Sanctions Over China's Crackdown on Uighurs". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  5. ^ Qin, Amy (28 December 2019). "In China's Crackdown on Muslims, Children Have Not Been Spared". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  6. ^ Tung, Li-Wen(董立文) (October 2018). 「再教育營」再現中共新疆 工作的矛盾 [The Reprise of the Contradiction of CCP's Work in Xinjiang Due to "Re-education Camps"] (PDF). 發展與探索 Prospect & Exploration (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 16 (10). Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  7. ^ Smith Finley, Joanne (2019). "Securitization, insecurity and conflict in contemporary Xinjiang: has PRC counter-terrorism evolved into state terror?". Central Asian Survey. 38 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/02634937.2019.1586348. ISSN 0263-4937.
  8. ^ Cirilli, Kevin (7 September 2020). "U.S. Bars Some China Xinjiang Firms on Alleged Abuse; Plans More". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  9. ^ Diamond, Rayhan; Asat, Yonah (15 July 2020). "The World's Most Technologically Sophisticated Genocide Is Happening in Xinjiang". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Why Is This Happening? Uncovering China's secret internment camps with Rian Thum". NBC News. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d e Kirby, Jen (28 July 2020). "Concentration camps and forced labor: China's repression of the Uighurs, explained". Vox. Retrieved 26 August 2021. It is the largest mass internment of an ethnic-religious minority group since World War II.
  12. ^ 中华人民共和国 国务院新闻办公室 (18 March 2019). "Xinjiang de fankong, qu jiduanhua douzheng yu renquan baozhang" 新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争与人权保障 (in Chinese). Xinhua. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  13. ^ "Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu qu jiduanhua tiaoli" 新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例. Xinjiang People's Congress Standing Committee. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Full Text: Vocational Education and Training in Xinjiang". Xinhua. Beijing. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  15. ^ Gao, Charlotte (8 November 2018). "Xinjiang Detention Camp or Vocational Center: Is China 'Calling A Deer A Horse'?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  16. ^ a b "A Summer Vacation in China's Muslim Gulag". Foreign Policy. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ramzy, Austin; Buckley, Chris (16 November 2019). "'Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  18. ^ "Statement by the Subcommittee on International Human Rights concerning the human rights situation of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang, China". SDIR Committee News Release (Press release). Subcommittee on International Human Rights of the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development. 21 October 2020. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020. The Subcommittee heard that the Government of China has been employing various strategies to persecute Muslim groups living in Xinjiang, including mass detentions, forced labour, pervasive state surveillance and population control. Witnesses clearly stated that the Government of China's actions constitute a clear attempt to eradicate Uyghur culture and religion. Some witnesses also stated that the Government of China's actions meet the definition of genocide as it is set out in Article II of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention).
  19. ^ Afp (22 October 2021). "43 countries call on China at UN to respect Uighur rights". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Putz, Catherine (15 July 2019). "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. Days after a group of 22 nations signed a letter addressed to the president of the UN Human Rights Council and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights calling on China to end its massive detention program in Xinjiang, a group of 37 countries submitted a similar letter in defense of China's policies. The text of the first letter, criticizing China, has been made available (PDF); the second letter has not yet made its way into the general public but both letters reportedly included requests that they be recorded as documents of the Human Rights Council's just-concluded 41st Session.
  21. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (13 July 2019). "More than 35 countries defend China over mass detention of Uighur Muslims in UN letter". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  22. ^ Miles, Tom (12 July 2019). "Saudi Arabia and Russia among 37 states backing China's Xinjiang policy". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  23. ^ "Before leaving office, Mike Pompeo accused China of genocide". The Economist. 23 January 2021. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  24. ^ Wang, Amber (15 June 2022). "US-sanctioned hardline Xinjiang chief moves to rural affairs role". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  25. ^ "Arrests skyrocketed in China's Muslim far west in 2017". France24. AFP. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  26. ^ "'Permanent cure': Inside the re-education camps China is using to brainwash Muslims". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  27. ^ "China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region". Human Rights Watch. 26 February 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  28. ^ a b "China detains thousands of Muslims in re-education camps". Union of Catholic Asian News. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  29. ^ Michael, Clarke (25 May 2018). "Xinjiang's "transformation through education" camps". The Interpreter. Lowy Institute. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  30. ^ "Why are Muslim Uyghurs being sent to 're-education' camps". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2018. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  31. ^ a b Stroup, David R. (19 November 2019). "Why Xi Jinping's Xinjiang policy is a major change in China's ethnic politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  32. ^ Thum, Rian; Harris, Rachel; Leibold, James; Batke, Jessica; Carrico, Kevin; Roberts, Sean R. (4 June 2018). "How Should the World Respond to Intensifying Repression in Xinjiang?". ChinaFile. Center on U.S.-China Relations at Asia Society. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  33. ^ a b Finley, Joanne (2020). "Why Scholars and Activists Increasingly Fear a Uyghur Genocide in Xinjiang". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (3): 348–370. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1848109. S2CID 236962241.
  34. ^ a b Rajagopalan, Megha; Killing, Alison; Buschek, Christo (27 August 2020). "China Secretly Built A Vast New Infrastructure To Imprison Muslims". Buzzfeed News. China has established a sprawling system to detain and incarcerate hundreds of thousands of Uighurs, Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities, in what is already the largest-scale detention of ethnic and religious minorities since World War II.
  35. ^ a b Niewenhuis, Lucas (24 September 2020). "380 detention camps identified in Xinjiang, showing continued mass incarceration". SupChina.
  36. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (14 March 2019). "1.5 million Muslims could be detained in China's Xinjiang: academic". Reuters. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  37. ^ Zenz, Adrian (16 May 2023). "How Beijing Forces Uyghurs to Pick Cotton". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  38. ^ Willemyns, Alex (19 September 2023). "Uyghur event in NY goes ahead despite Beijing's warning". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  39. ^ "China Uighurs: One million held in political camps, UN told". BBC News. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  40. ^ "U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps". Reuters. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  41. ^ Harris, Rachel (1 October 2019). "Repression and Quiet Resistance in Xinjiang". Current History. 118 (810): 276–281. doi:10.1525/curh.2019.118.810.276. S2CID 203647128.
  42. ^ Shih, Gerry (18 May 2018). "China's mass indoctrination camps evoke Cultural Revolution". Associated Press. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  43. ^ Zenz, Adrian (16 July 2019). "You Can't Force People to Assimilate. So Why Is China at It Again?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  44. ^ Puddington, Arch (8 May 2019). "Beijing's Persecution of the Uyghurs is a Modern Take on an Old Theme". The Diplomat. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  45. ^ Enos, Olivia (7 June 2019). "Responding to the Crisis in Xinjiang" (PDF). The Heritage Foundation.
  46. ^ a b c "Joint Statement on Xinjiang at Third Committee" (PDF). 29 October 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  47. ^ a b c "Joint Statement, Delivered by UK Rep to UN, on Xinjiang at the Third Committee Dialogue of the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination". United States Mission to the United Nations. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  48. ^ "The "22 vs. 50" Diplomatic Split Between the West and China Over Xinjiang and Human Rights". Jamestown. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  49. ^ a b Graham-Harrison, Emma (24 September 2020). "China has built 380 internment camps in Xinjiang, study finds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  50. ^ a b Basu, Zachary (8 October 2020). "More countries join condemnation of China over Xinjiang abuses". Axios. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  51. ^ Tailoring Responsibility: Tracing Apparel Supply Chains from the Uyghur Region to Europe (PDF). Uyghur Rights Monitor, the Helena Kennedy Centre for International Justice at Sheffield Hallam University, and the Uyghur Center for Democracy and Human Rights. December 2023. pp. 18–19.
  52. ^ Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia – A History. Taylor & Francis. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-136-82706-8.
  53. ^ Millward, James (7 February 2019). "'Reeducating' Xinjiang's Muslims". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  54. ^ Newby, L. J. (2005). The Empire and the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations with Khoqand c. 1760–1860. Leiden – Boston: Brill. p. 17. ISBN 9004145508. Retrieved 6 August 2020. Despite the imperial pronouncement that from Ili in the north to Yarkand in the south, Xinjiang should now be considered part of the interior (neidi), in the eyes of many Chinese officials and literati, it remained a distant land beyond the fringes of the Chinese cultural world. ... n 1758 the court has already designated Xinjiang as a penal colony and a place of exile for disgraced officials. The decision to fully integrate the new frontier into the provincial system was, therefore, not entirely unsurprising.
  55. ^ a b Forbes, Andrew D. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 W. (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-5212-5514-1. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  56. ^ a b c Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-2311-3924-3. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  57. ^ Dillon, Michael (2014). Xinjiang and the Expansion of Chinese Communist Power: Kashgar in the Early Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-64721-8.
  58. ^ Starr, S. Frederick, ed. (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1318-9. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  59. ^ Benson, Linda (1990). The Ili Rebellion: the Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-509-7.
  60. ^ "Borders | Uyghurs and The Xinjiang Conflict: East Turkestan Independence Movement". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  61. ^ "Devastating Blows: Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Vol. 17, no. 2. April 2005. Post 9/11: labeling Uighurs terrorists, p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  62. ^ Dillon, Michael (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-134-36096-3. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  63. ^ Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia – A History. Taylor & Francis. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-1368-2706-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  64. ^ Nathan, Andrew James; Scobell, Andrew (2012). China's Search for Security. Columbia University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-2315-1164-3. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  65. ^ Reed, J. Todd; Raschke, Diana (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-3133-6540-9. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  66. ^ "China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch. October 2001. Archived from the original on 12 November 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  67. ^ Dillon, Michael (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-134-36096-3. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  68. ^ Debata, Mahesh Ranjan (2007). China's Minorities: Ethnic-religious Separatism in Xinjiang. Pentagon Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-81-8274-325-0.
  69. ^ Castets, Rémi (2003). "The Uyghurs in Xinjiang – The Malaise Grows". China Perspectives. 49. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  70. ^ Branigan, Tania; Watts, Jonathan (5 July 2009). "Muslim Uighurs riot as ethnic tensions rise in China". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  71. ^ Samuel, Sigal (28 August 2018). "China Is Treating Islam Like a Mental Illness". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 December 2019. In 2009, ethnic riots there resulted in hundreds of deaths, and some radical Uighurs have carried out terrorist attacks in recent years.
  72. ^ "Wary Of Unrest Among Uighur Minority, China Locks Down Xinjiang Region". NPR. 26 September 2017. In the years that followed, Uighur terrorists killed dozens of Han Chinese in brutal, coordinated attacks at train stations and government offices. A few Uighurs have joined ISIS, and Chinese authorities are worried about more attacks on Chinese soil.
  73. ^ Kennedy, Lindsey; Paul, Nathan (31 May 2017). "China created a new terrorist threat by repressing this ethnic minority". Quartz. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  74. ^ "Chinese break up 'needle' riots". BBC News. 4 September 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  75. ^ Richburg, Keith B. (19 July 2011). "China: Deadly attack on police station in Xinjiang". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  76. ^ "Deadly Terrorist Attack in Southwestern China Blamed on Separatist Muslim Uighurs". Time. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  77. ^ "Deadly China blast at Xinjiang railway station". BBC News. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  78. ^ "Urumqi car and bomb attack kills dozens". The Guardian. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  79. ^ "هؤلاء انغماسيو أردوغان الذين يستوردهم من الصين – عربي أونلاين". 31 January 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  80. ^ "Turkey lists "E. Turkestan Islamic Movement" as terrorists". People's Daily Online. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  81. ^ "Turkey-China Relations: From "Strategic Cooperation" to "Strategic Partnership"?". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  82. ^ Martina, Michael; Blanchard, Ben; Spring, Jake (20 July 2016). Ruwitch, John; Macfie, Nick (eds.). "Britain adds Chinese militant group to terror list". Reuters.
  83. ^ "Terrorist Exclusion List". Archived Content. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  84. ^ "Governance Asia-Pacific Watch". United Nations. April 2007. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2007.
  85. ^ "From denial to pride: how China changed its language on Xinjiang's camps". The Guardian. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  86. ^ Greitens, Sheena Chestnut; Lee, Myunghee; Yazici, Emir (January 2020). "Counterterrorism and Preventive Repression: China's Changing Strategy in Xinjiang". International Security. 44 (3): 9–47. doi:10.1162/isec_a_00368. S2CID 209892080.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Khatchadourian, Raffi (5 April 2021). "Surviving the Crackdown in Xinjiang". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  88. ^ Greitens, Lee & Yazici 2020, pp. 22–28: "Three common explanations for the increased repression in Xinjiang appear in scholarly literature and policy analysis: (1) increased levels of contention in Xinjiang beginning around 2009; (2) resulting shifts in the CCP's ethnic minority policies; and (3) the individual leadership of Xinjiang Party Secretary Chen Quanguo."
  89. ^ "China's Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang". Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  90. ^ Nathan, Andrew James; Scobell, Andrew (2012). China's Search for Security. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-2315-1164-3.[page needed]
  91. ^ Hayes, Anna (2 January 2020). "Interwoven 'Destinies': The Significance of Xinjiang to the China Dream, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the Xi Jinping Legacy". Journal of Contemporary China. 29 (121): 31–45. doi:10.1080/10670564.2019.1621528. S2CID 191742114.
  92. ^ Kashgarian, Asim; Hussein, Rikar (22 December 2019). "China's Plan in Xinjiang Seen as Key Factor in Uighur Crackdown". Voice of America. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  93. ^ "Xinjiang crackdown at the heart of China's 'Belt and Road'". Bangkok Post. Agence France-Presse. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  94. ^ Lipes, Joshua (5 November 2020). "US Drops ETIM From Terror List, Weakening China's Pretext For Xinjiang Crackdown". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  95. ^ "Uighur Foreign Fighters:An Underexamined Jihadist Challenge" (PDF). ICCT International Centre for Counter-Terrorism-The Hague. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  96. ^ Zhou, L. (7 November 2020). "China could face greater terrorism threat as US 'delists' East Turkestan Islamic Movement, experts say". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  97. ^ a b c d Zenz, Adrian (15 May 2018). "New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang". China Brief. 18 (10). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  98. ^ Wines, Michael (10 July 2009). "A Strongman Is China's Rock in Ethnic Strife". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  99. ^ Swain, Jon (12 July 2009). "Security chiefs failed to spot signs calling for Uighur revolt". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
  100. ^ "Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch. 11 April 2005. Retrieved 11 April 2005.
  101. ^ Neville-Hadley, Peter (1997). China the Silk Routes. Cadogan Guides. Globe Pequot Press. p. 304. ISBN 9781860110528. Travelling east from Khotan{...}Many Uighurs speak no Chinese at all, and most hotels are even less likely to have English speakers than those elsewhere in China.
  102. ^ "Integrating Islam The Key To 'Modern Culture' In Xinjiang – OpEd". 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  103. ^ "No Tolerance for 'Wild Imams' in China – But 'Weibo Imams' are Thriving". 15 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  104. ^ "China Detains, Brainwashes 'Wild' Imams Who Step Out of Line in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  105. ^ Ma, Alexandra (23 February 2019). "This map shows a trillion-dollar reason why China is oppressing more than a million Muslims". Business Insider (in German). Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  106. ^ "China Uighurs: Xinjiang ban on long beards and veils". BBC News. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  107. ^ "China bans burqas and 'abnormal' beards in Muslim province of Xinjiang". The Independent. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  108. ^ "US-China trade war; More on the Xinjiang "re-education" camps". Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  109. ^ "Semi-Autonomous Region of China with Terrorist Ties: Xinjiang and the Uyghur". Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  110. ^ "Xinjiang: China ignores lessons from the past". 11 July 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  111. ^ "New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang". Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  112. ^ "China Steps Up 'Strike Hard' Campaign in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  113. ^ "Tibetan self-immolators dismissed as 'criminals' by Chinese officials". The Guardian. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  114. ^ a b Zenz, Adrian; Leibold, James (21 September 2017). "Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing's Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang". China Brief. 17 (12). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  115. ^ Zand, Bernhard (26 July 2018). "A Surveillance State Unlike Any the World Has Ever Seen". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  116. ^ 英媒:新疆铁腕控制 汉人也叫苦连天. BBC News 中文 (in Simplified Chinese). BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  117. ^ a b "How a Chinese region that accounts for just 1.5% of the population became one of the most intrusive police states in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  118. ^ "China Xinjiang police state: Fear and resentment". BBC News. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  119. ^ "China: one in five arrests take place in 'police state' Xinjiang". The Guardian. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  120. ^ "China has turned Xinjiang into a police state like no other". The Economist. 31 May 2018. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  121. ^ Dillon, Michael (2001). Religious Minorities and China. Minority Rights Group International.
  122. ^ Buang, Sa'eda; Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian (9 May 2014). Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-317-81500-6. Subsequently, a new China was founded on the basis of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would disappear in the end, and a new human society would develop in its place. A series of anti-religious campaigns was launched by the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the late 1970s. As a result, for nearly 30 years from the beginning of the 1950s to the end of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) were shut down and Imams were subjected to forced 're-education'.
  123. ^ Leibold, James (10 October 2018). "Hu the Uniter: Hu Lianhe and the Radical Turn in China's Xinjiang Policy". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  124. ^ "China: Massive Numbers of Uyghurs & Other Ethnic Minorities Forced into Re-education Programs | Chinese Human Rights Defenders". Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  125. ^ Buckley, Chris (31 August 2019). "China's Prisons Swell After Deluge of Arrests Engulfs Muslims". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  126. ^ "What's happening to Xinjiang's Uighur Muslims?". BBC. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  127. ^ "Muslims in China province detained in 're-education camps'". Hindustan Times. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  128. ^ "Passports taken, more police ... new party boss Chen Quanguo acts to tame Xinjiang with methods used in Tibet". South China Morning Post. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  129. ^ "A Political Economist on How China Sees Trump's Trade War | The New Y…". 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  130. ^ a b Westcott, Ben; Whiteman, Hilary (19 December 2019). "Chinese ambassador says Xinjiang 'trainees' have graduated in rare press conference". CNN. Retrieved 19 December 2019. China's ambassador to Australia has defended Beijing against accusations of human rights violations in a rare press conference Thursday, saying allegations that one million people had been detained in Xinjiang were "fake news"... Cheng said Thursday that... "I understand now the trainees in the centers have all completed their studies and they have, with the assistance of the local government, they have gradually or steadily found their jobs," the Chinese ambassador said.
  131. ^ Karp, Paul (19 December 2019). "China's ambassador to Australia says reports of detention of 1m Uighurs 'fake news'". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  132. ^ a b Ramzy, Austin (30 March 2020). "Xinjiang Returns to Work, but Coronavirus Worries Linger in China". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2020. No reports have emerged of conditions in the facilities since the outbreak began. But former detainees have previously described poor food and sanitation and little help for those who fell ill.{...}"According to my personal experience in the concentration camp, they never helped anyone or provided any medical support for any kind of disease or health condition," said Ms. Sauytbay, who fled to Kazakhstan two years ago, in a phone interview this month. "If the coronavirus spread inside the camps, they would not help, they would not provide any medical support."{...}Now the region is being jolted back to work. Labor transfer programs, in which large numbers of Uyghurs and other predominately Muslim minorities are sent to work in other parts of Xinjiang and the rest of China, have resumed in recent weeks.
  133. ^ Juma, Mamatjan; Seytoff, Alim; Lipes, Joshua (27 February 2020). "Xinjiang Authorities Sending Uyghurs to Work in China's Factories, Despite Coronavirus Risks". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Mamatjan Juma; Alim Seytoff. Retrieved 2 February 2020. Recent reports by the official Xinjiang Daily and said that from Feb. 22–23, "400 youths were transferred to the provinces of Hunan, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi." Of those, 114 from Awat (in Chinese, Awati) county, in the XUAR's Aksu (Akesu) prefecture, were sent to Jiangxi's Jiujiang city on Feb. 23, 100 from Aksu city were sent to Jiujiang on Feb. 22, and 171 from Hotan (Hetian) prefecture were sent to Changsha city in Hunan province, the reports said, without providing a date for the last transfer.
  134. ^ "China sends Uygurs from Xinjiang camps to work in other parts of country". South China Morning Post. 2 May 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  135. ^ Fifield, Anna (24 September 2020). "China is building vast new detention centers for Muslims in Xinjiang". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  136. ^ "Why do some Muslim-majority countries support China's crackdown on Muslims?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  137. ^ "Uyghurs are being deported from Muslim countries, raising concerns about China's growing reach". CNN. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  138. ^ "Detainee says China has secret jail in Dubai, holds Uyghurs". Associated Press. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  139. ^ a b Kuo, Lily (17 November 2019). "'Show no mercy': leaked documents reveal details of China's Xinjiang detentions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  140. ^ Yin, Cao (27 March 2018). "Xinjiang official removed, expelled". China Daily. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  141. ^ Li, Jane (18 November 2019). ""He refused": China sees online tributes to an official who freed Muslims in Xinjiang". Quartz. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  142. ^ "Exposed: China's Operating Manuals For Mass Internment And Arrest By Algorithm". ICIJ. 24 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  143. ^ "Data leak reveals how China 'brainwashes' Uighurs in prison camps". BBC News. 24 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  144. ^ Zenz, Adrian (February 2020). "The Karakax List: Dissecting the Anatomy of Beijing's Internment Drive in Xinjiang". Journal of Political Risk. 8 (2). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  145. ^ "The Karakax list: how China targets Uighurs in Xinjiang". Financial Times. February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  146. ^ "China Uighurs: Detained for beards, veils and internet browsing". BBC News. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  147. ^ Betsy Reed (18 February 2020). "China detains Uighurs for growing beards or visiting foreign websites, leak reveals". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  148. ^ a b c d Sudworth, John (24 May 2022). "The faces from China's Uyghur detention camps". Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  149. ^ a b Bayerischer Rundfunk (24 May 2022). "Gemeinsame Recherche von BR und Spiegel: Neues Datenleak gibt exklusiven Einblick in Alltag der Masseninternierung von Uiguren in China" [Joint research by BR and Spiegel: New data leak gives exclusive insight into the everyday routine of the mass internment of Uyghurs in China]. Bayerischer Rundfunk, Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  150. ^ Zenz, Adrian (24 May 2022). "The Xinjiang Police Files: Re-Education Camp Security and Political Paranoia in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region". The Journal of the European Association for Chinese Studies. 3: 1–56. doi:10.25365/jeacs.2022.3.zenz. ISSN 2709-9946.
  151. ^ Mathieu von Rohr (24 May 2022). "Die Lage am Morgen: Jetzt rächt sich auch noch die deutsche Chinapolitik" [The situation in the morning: Now German China policy is taking revenge]. Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  152. ^ "xinjiang-police-files-uyghur-detention-genocide". USA TODAY. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  153. ^ a b "Umgang mit Uiguren – Bilder des Grauens" [Dealing with Uyghurs – Images of horror]. (in German). Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  154. ^ "Neues Datenleak gibt Einblick in Masseninternierung von Uiguren in China" [New data leak gives insight into mass detention of Uyghurs in China] (in Austrian German). Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  155. ^ "Xinjiang Police Files: Inside a Chinese internment camp". 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  156. ^ Phillips, Tom (25 January 2018). "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  157. ^ "China suggests its camps for Uighurs are just vocational schools". The Economist. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  158. ^ "Approval opinion for the environmental impact report on Atush vocational skills training center project". Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  159. ^ "Patriotic songs and self-criticism: why China is 're-educating' Muslims in mass detention camps". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  160. ^ "China's Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight". Foreign Policy. 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  161. ^ Ryan, Fergus; Cave, Danielle; Ruser, Nathan (1 November 2018). "Mapping Xinjiang's 're-education' camps". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  162. ^ Wen, Phillip; Auyezov, Olzhas (29 November 2018). "Tracking China's Muslim Gulag". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  163. ^ "Concentration Camps and Genocide". East Turkistan National Awakening Movement. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019. In July 2019, the Washington Free Beacon broke the news that a vast network of Concentration Camps, prisons, and labor camps were uncovered in East Turkistan. ETNAM uncovered at least 124 concentration camps, 193 prisons, and 66 Bingtuan labor camps with an estimated total 3.6 million detainees. Other researchers estimate there may be some 1,200 concentration camps, prisons, and labor camps across East Turkistan.
  164. ^ "China running more camps in Xinjiang than thought: group". Taipei Times. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019. Uighur activists on Tuesday said that they have documented nearly 500 camps and prisons run by China to detain members of the ethnic group, alleging that Beijing could be holding far more than the commonly cited figure of 1 million people. The Washington-based East Turkistan National Awakening Movement, a group that seeks independence for the Xinjiang region, gave the geographic coordinates of 182 suspected "concentration camps" where Uighurs are allegedly pressured to renounce their culture.
  165. ^ a b Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (12 December 2018). "Xinjiang Authorities 'Preparing' Re-education Camps Ahead of Expected International Monitors". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  166. ^ "China is putting Uighur children in 'orphanages' even if their parents are alive". The Independent. 21 September 2018. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  167. ^ a b Yanan Wang; Dake Kang (21 September 2019). "China treats Uighur kids as 'orphans' after parents seized". Associated Press. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  168. ^ Feng, Emily (9 July 2018). "Uighur children fall victim to China anti-terror drive". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  169. ^ a b Cheng, Ching-Tse (30 December 2019). "China sends 500,000 Uyghur children to 'detention camps'". Taiwan News. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  170. ^ "Xinjiang: China, where are my children?". BBC News. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019 – via YouTube.
  171. ^ Griffiths, James (5 July 2019). "Children of detained Uyghurs held in mass boarding schools in Xinjiang, research claims". CNN. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  172. ^ Brennan, David (5 July 2019). "IT'S NOT JUST AMERICA—CHINA IS FORCIBLY SEPARATING THOUSANDS OF CHILDREN FROM THEIR FAMILIES". Newsweek. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  173. ^ Choi, Christy (5 July 2019). "China accused of rapid campaign to take Muslim children from their families". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  174. ^ Withnall, Adam (5 July 2019). "'Cultural genocide': China separating thousands of Muslim children from parents for 'thought education'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  175. ^ "Rights Group Calls for the Release of Uighur Children Detained in Xinjiang". Time. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  176. ^ "China: Xinjiang Children Separated from Families". Human Rights Watch. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  177. ^ "China running 380 detention centres in Xinjiang: Researchers". Al Jazeera. 24 September 2020. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) said it had identified more than 380 "suspected detention facilities" in the region, where the United Nations says more than one million Uighurs and other mostly Muslim Turkic-speaking residents have been held in recent years.
  178. ^ "Map". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020. Detention Facilities (381)
  179. ^ a b c d e Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (2 July 2018). "Uyghur Exile Group Leader's Mother Died in Xinjiang Detention Center". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Alim Seytoff. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  180. ^ Knowles, Hannah; Bellware, Kim; Beachum, Lateshia (25 November 2019). "Secret documents detail inner workings of China's mass detention camps for minorities". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 August 2020. A guard tower and barbed wire fences are seen around a section of the Artux City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region in December. This is one of a growing number of internment camps in the Xinjiang region.
  181. ^ a b Vicky Xiuzhong Xu; Danielle Cave; James Leibold; Kelsey Munro; Nathan Ruser (1 March 2020). "Uyghurs for sale". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  182. ^ Kuo, Lily (11 January 2019). "'If you enter a camp, you never come out': inside China's war on Islam". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 December 2019. Luopu, a sparsely populated rural county of about 280,000 that is almost entirely Uighur, is home to eight internment camps officially labelled "vocational training centres", according to public budget documents seen by the Guardian.
  183. ^ a b "DHS Cracks Down on Goods Produced by China's State-Sponsored Forced Labor". Department of Homeland Security. 14 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  184. ^ a b "U.S. to block some imports from China's Xinjiang, still studying broad cotton, tomato bans-DHS". Reuters. 14 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  185. ^ a b Christian Shepherd; Philip Wen (25 September 2018). "'China's big mistake': Pakistanis lobby to free wives trapped in Xinjiang". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2020. Mirza Imran Baig, 40, who trades between his home city of Lahore and Urumqui, the Xinjiang regional capital, said his wife was detained in a "re-education" camp in her native Bachu county for two months in May and June 2017 and had been unable to leave her hometown since her release.
  186. ^ a b Lopez, Linette (15 December 2019). "China's next gambit to save its economy will export dystopia worldwide". Business Insider. Retrieved 7 April 2020. Pakistani businessman Mirza Imran Baig shows a picture with his Uighur wife, Malika Mamiti, outside the Pakistani embassy in Beijing. Mamiti, was sent to a political-indoctrination camp after returning to China's far west Xinjiang region in May 2017, Baig said. Scores of Pakistani men whose Muslim Uighur wives have disappeared into internment camps in China feel helpless, fighting a wall of silence as they struggle to reunite their families.
  187. ^ a b Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (16 September 2020). "Detainees Endure Forced Labor in Xinjiang Region Where Disney Filmed Mulan". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Mamatjan Juma. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  188. ^ Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (2 November 2020). "Six Camp Detainees From a Street in Xinjiang's Uchturpan Have Died or Are Seriously Ill". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  189. ^ a b Feng, Emily (16 December 2018). "Forced labour being used in China's 're-education' camps". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 December 2019. Two of Xinjiang's largest internment camps — the Kashgar city and Yutian county vocational training centres — have opened forced labour facilities this year. Yutian's detention centre boasts eight factories specialising in vocations such as shoemaking, mobile phone assembly and tea packaging, offering a base monthly salary of Rmb1,500 ($220), according to Chinese state media reports. Satellite images show that Kashgar's internment centre has more than doubled in size since 2016 and Yutian's grew 269 per cent over the same period, according to a report compiled by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a think-tank.
  190. ^ Thum, Rian (15 May 2018). "What Really Happens in China's 'Re-education' Camps". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  191. ^ "China Operates Political and Ideological Re-Education Camps in Xinjiang". Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  192. ^ "Re-education camps make a comeback in China's far-west". Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  193. ^ "RFA: 120,000 Uyghurs Held in Kashgar for Re-education". China Digital Times. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  194. ^ Kuo, Lily (11 January 2019). "'If you enter a camp, you never come out': inside China's war on Islam". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 December 2019. Some local governments are struggling to maintain this pace of spending. In neighbouring Cele county, where authorities expected to have almost 12,000 detainees in vocational camps and detention centres, a budget for 2018 says: 'There are still many projects not included in the budget due to a lack of funds. The financial situation in 2018 is very severe.'
  195. ^ "'The Price of My Studies Abroad Was Very High': Uyghur Former Al Azhar University". Radio Free Asia.
  196. ^ a b 【聲援維吾爾 守護台灣】 (in Chinese and English). Democratic Progressive Party. 6 April 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2020 – via YouTube.
  198. ^ "A New Gulag in China". National Review. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  199. ^ "'More Than 30' Relatives of Uyghur Exile Leader Rebiya Kadeer Detained in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  200. ^ "Uyghur Activist Rebiya Kadeer's Relatives Detained". China Digital Times. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  201. ^ a b Jeff Kao; Raymond Zhong; Paul Mozur; Aaron Krolik (23 June 2021). "How China Spreads Its Propaganda Version of Life for Uyghurs". ProPublica. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  202. ^ "Kazakh Trial Sheds Light on Interned Chinese Muslims". Transitions Online. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  203. ^ a b "China's 'prison-like re-education camps' strain relations with Kazakhstan as woman asks Kazakh court not to send her back". South China Morning Post. Agence France-Presse. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  204. ^ "Kazakhstan-China deportation case sparks trial of public opinion". Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  205. ^ Kumenov, Almaz (17 July 2019). "Ethnic Kazakh's life in balance as deportation to China looms". Eurasianet. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  206. ^ "Kazakh trial throws spotlight on China's internment centres". Financial Times. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  207. ^ "Chinese 'reeducation camps' in spotlight at Kazakh trial". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  208. ^ Kuo, Lily (August 2018). "Kazakh court frees woman who fled Chinese re-education camp". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  209. ^ "Sauytbay Trial Ends in Kazakhstan With Surprising Release". Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  210. ^ The Guardian (2 August 2018). "Cheers as Kazakh court thwarts deportation of Chinese woman who fled 're-education camp' in Xinjiang". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  211. ^ "Woman who told of Chinese internment camps headed to Sweden". Associated Press. 3 June 2019. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  212. ^ "Sweden granted political asylum to Sairagul Sauytbay". The Qazaq Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  213. ^ Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (31 August 2018). "One in Six Uyghurs Held in Political 'Re-Education Camps' in Xinjiang's Onsu County". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 28 April 2020. Onsu (in Chinese, Wensu) county, in the XUAR's Aksu (Akesu) prefecture is home to around 230,000 people, according to the county government's website. Some 180,000 of them are members of minority groups—the largest of which is Uyghurs.
  214. ^ Mirovalev, Mansur. "Why are Central Asian countries so quiet on Uighur persecution?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 December 2023. In November, border guards in neighbouring Uzbekistan deported Gene Bunin, a Russian-American scholar of the Uighur language who runs, an online collection of testimony of thousands of Chinese Muslims.
  215. ^ "Uyghur university student serving 13-year sentence for using VPN". Radio Free Asia. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023. Bunin, who spent nearly five years in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region researching the Uyghur language, runs the Xinjiang Victims Database, a platform that collects records of Uyghurs and other Turkic minority peoples detained there.
  216. ^ Shohret Hoshur (3 August 2023). "Elderly Uyghur jailed for learning the Quran as a child confirmed dead in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 3 December 2023. Memet's situation came to light after the Xinjiang Victims Database tweeted last week that Memet had been sentenced to 13 years and 11 months in jail for learning the Quran between November 1964 and March 1965.
  217. ^ Nee, William (27 November 2023). "A Nuanced Approach to China Needs Human Rights at the Core". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 3 December 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023. The Xinjiang Victims Database has recorded 225 deaths in custody, likely the tip of the iceberg.
  218. ^ ""On the Fringe of Society": Humanitarian Needs of the At-Risk Uyghur Diaspora". Uyghur Human Rights Project. 1 February 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023. According to Gene Bunin, the Xinjiang Victims Database – the most comprehensive set of data on the victims of the Chinese government's atrocities – would not exist without Ata-Jurt Eriktileri.
  219. ^ ""Like we were enemies in a war" | The debate around the current status of internment camp detainees". Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  220. ^ ""Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots"". Human Rights Watch. 19 April 2021. Using official figures combined with their own documentation, data from the Xinjiang Victims Database support estimates that about 300,000 people have been sentenced since the Strike Hard Campaign escalated in late 2016.
  221. ^ Fran Lu (16 January 2023). "Infernal blunder: Hong Kong movie stars Andy Lau and Chow Yun-fat wrongly listed as 'Xinjiang cops' who helped 'round up thousands' by US activist group". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023.
  222. ^ 鄭秀珠 (14 January 2023). "周潤發劉德華被屈「新疆警察名單」網友嘲︰他們知道新身份嗎?" [Chow Yun-fat Andy Lau were subsumed to the "Xinjiang Police List". Netizens ridiculed: do they know their new identities?]. HK01 (in Chinese (Hong Kong)).
  223. ^ "周润发刘德华惊现"新疆警察名单" 网嘲:他们知道新身分吗". China Press (in Chinese). Malaysia. 14 January 2023.
  224. ^ Zenz, Adrian (July 2019). "Brainwashing, Police Guards and Coercive Internment: Evidence from Chinese Government Documents about the Nature and Extent of Xinjiang's "Vocational Training Internment Camps"". Journal of Political Risk. 7 (7). Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  225. ^ Lipes, Joshua (12 November 2019). "Expert Estimates China Has More Than 1,000 Internment Camps For Xinjiang Uyghurs". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  226. ^ Friedman, George (19 November 2019). "The Pressure on China". Geopolitical Futures. Retrieved 22 November 2019. 1 in every 10 Uighurs are being detained in "re-education" camps
  227. ^ "Searching for truth in China's Uighur 're-education' camps". BBC News. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  228. ^ VanderKlippe, Nathan (24 September 2019). "Incarceration of Christians and Han Chinese in Xinjiang shows broad reach of forced indoctrination campaign". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  229. ^ "China footage reveals hundreds of blindfolded and shackled prisoners". the Guardian. 23 September 2019.
  230. ^ "Satellite sleuths verify 'chilling' video of blindfolded Uyghurs at Chinese train station". 23 September 2019.
  231. ^ Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (14 May 2020). "Residents of Uyghur-Majority County in Xinjiang Ordered to Report Others Fasting During Ramadan". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Elise Anderson; Alim Seytoff. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  232. ^ "China in darkest period for human rights since Tiananmen, says rights group". The Guardian. 2021.
  233. ^ World Report 2021. Human Rights Watch. 23 November 2020. p. 9.
  234. ^ a b c d e Matthew Hill, David Campanale and Joel Gunter (2 February 2021). "'Their goal is to destroy everyone': Uighur camp detainees allege systematic rape". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021.
  235. ^ a b "Kazakh Man Recounts 'Reeducation' In Western Chinese Camp". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  236. ^ "Muslim inmates in China detention camp forced to eat pork, drink alcohol and physically tortured as some commit suicide". 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  237. ^ "Interview: 'I Did Not Believe I Would Leave Prison in China Alive'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  238. ^ "Woman describes torture, beatings in Chinese detention camp". Associated Press. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  239. ^ Yan, Sophia (28 November 2018). "'I begged them to kill me', Uighur woman describes torture to US politicians". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  240. ^ "Academics condemn China over Xinjiang camps, urge sanctions". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  241. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on January 21, 2019". Foreign Ministry of China. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  242. ^ a b Denyer, Simon (17 May 2018). "Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  243. ^ "NGO reports custodial deaths, tortures in China's Xinjiang". Business Standard. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  244. ^ Shih, Gerry; Kang, Dake (18 May 2018). "Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China's 're-education'camps, former inmate claims". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  245. ^ VanderKlippe, Nathan (3 July 2018). "'It is about Xi as the leader of the world': Former detainees recount abuse in Chinese re-education centres". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  246. ^ "Chinese torture allegedly kills Islamic scholar". Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  247. ^ "Uyghur Human Rights Project Condemns Death in Custody of Scholar Muhammad Salih Hajim". Uyghur Human Rights Project. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  249. ^ "Elderly Uyghur Woman Dies in Detention in Xinjiang 'Political Re-Education Camp'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  250. ^ "Uyghur Teenager Dies in Custody at Political Re-Education Camp". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  251. ^ "Uyghur Man Buried Amid Strict Security After Latest Xinjiang Reeducation Camp Death". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  252. ^ "A Uyghur Muslims die in re-education camps, go crazy in psychiatric hospitals". Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  253. ^ Lipes, Joshua (30 October 2019). "Female Detainees at Xinjiang Internment Camps Face Sterilization, Sexual Abuse: Camp Survivor". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  254. ^ "China's Emerging Middle Eastern Kingdom". Tablet. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  255. ^ "China cuts Uighur births with IUDs, abortion, sterilization". Associated Press. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  256. ^ Kang, Dake; Wang, Yanan (30 November 2018). "China's Uighurs told to share beds, meals with party members". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  257. ^ Lipes, Joshua (31 October 2019). "Male Chinese 'Relatives' Assigned to Uyghur Homes Co-sleep With Female 'Hosts'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  258. ^ Ferris-Rotman, Amie; Toleukhan, Aigerim; Rauhala, Emily; Fifield, Anna (6 October 2019). "China accused of genocide over forced abortions of Uighur Muslim women as escapees reveal widespread sexual torture". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022.
  259. ^ a b Campbell, Charlie (21 November 2019). "'The Entire System Is Designed to Suppress Us.' What the Chinese Surveillance State Means for the Rest of the World". Time. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  260. ^ "Police Officer Beat Uyghur Internment Camp Detainee to Death in Drunken Rage". Radio Free Asia. 28 October 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019. He was beaten to death ... a police officer," the committee chief said in a telephone interview.
    "The officer came to work after drinking alcohol and beat him without any reason.
  261. ^ Benedikt Voigt; Cornelius Dieckmann (24 May 2022). ""Erst töten, dann melden" Die "Xinjiang Police Files" enthüllen das Ausmaß der Uiguren-Verfolgung" ["First kill, then report”: The “Xinjiang Police Files” reveal the extent of the Uyghur persecution]. Retrieved 31 May 2022. Demnach soll Chen Quanguo, der frühere Parteichef von Xinjiang, 2018 einen Schießbefehl für flüchtende Häftlinge erteilt haben: „Erst töten, dann melden." [According to this, Chen Quanguo, the former party leader of Xinjiang, is said to have issued an order to shoot escaping prisoners in 2018: "First kill, then report."]
  262. ^ Buckley, Chris (8 September 2018). "China Is Detaining Muslims in Vast Numbers. The Goal: 'Transformation.'". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  263. ^ Hiatt, Fred (2 December 2019). "These journalists have confounded China's massive propaganda machine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 June 2020. It was Hoshur's 29 October story that confirmed the deaths of 150 people over the course of six months at the No. 1 Internment Camp in the Yengisher district of Kuchar county, "marking the first confirmation of mass deaths since the camps were introduced in 2017," as the story notes.
  264. ^ Shohret Hoshur; Joshua Lipes (29 October 2019). "At Least 150 Detainees Have Died in One Xinjiang Internment Camp: Police Officer". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Mamatjan Juma. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  265. ^ a b Sudworth, John (4 August 2020). "China Uighurs: A model's video gives a rare glimpse inside internment". BBC News. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  266. ^ Vanderklippe, Nathan (2 August 2018). "'Everyone was silent, endlessly mute': Former Chinese re-education instructor speaks out". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018.
  267. ^ Rajagopalan, Megha (15 February 2020). "She Escaped The Nightmare Of China's Brutal Internment Camps. Now She Could Be Sent Back". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020.
  268. ^ Zenz, Adrian (11 December 2019). "Xinjiang's New Slavery". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  269. ^ Long, Qiao (1 January 2019). "Businesses in China's Xinjiang Use Forced Labor Linked to Camp System". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  270. ^ Costa, Ana Nicolaci da (13 November 2019). "Fashion brands face scrutiny over Xinjiang cotton". BBC News. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  271. ^ Buckley, Chris; Ramzy, Austin (30 December 2019). "Inside China's Push to Turn Muslim Minorities Into an Army of Workers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  272. ^ Lehr, Amy K.; Bechrakis, Mariefaye (October 2019). Connecting the Dots in Xinjiang: Forced Labor, Forced Assimilation, and Western Supply Chains (PDF) (Report). Center for Strategic and International Studies Human Rights Initiative. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  273. ^ Putz, Catherine (14 November 2019). "Cotton and Corporate Responsibility: Fighting Forced Labor in Xinjiang and Uzbekistan". The Diplomat. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  274. ^ a b c Davis, Stuart (2023). SANCTIONS AS WAR : anti-imperialist perspectives on american geo-economic. Haymarket Books. pp. 314–316. ISBN 978-1-64259-812-4. OCLC 1345216431.
  275. ^ "What happens when China's Uighurs are released from re-education camps". The Economist. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  276. ^ a b Fox, Ben (11 March 2020). "US Report Finds Widespread Forced Uighur Labor in China". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  277. ^ "Shirtmaker scores rare win to remove Xinjiang unit from US blacklist". South China Morning Post. 4 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  278. ^ "Canada's grocery chains stocked with tomato products connected to Chinese forced labour". Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  279. ^ "Il pomodoro dello Xinjiang "confezionato in Italia" conquista il mondo grazie ai colossi delle conserve italiane". 29 October 2021.
  280. ^ "Report Finds Forced Labor Throughout China Solar Panel Supply Chain Matthew McMullan". 19 May 2021. researchers in the United Kingdom 'released a report examining Chinese government-run labor programs that service the industries in the solar panel supply chain that runs through the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
  281. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Buckley, Chris; Plumer, Brad (24 June 2021). "U.S. Bans Imports of Some Chinese Solar Materials Tied to Forced Labor". The New York Times.
  282. ^ "Faced with the prospect of tariffs on Chinese-made solar panels in 2017, SEIA warned that the market would react badly to new duties, predicting that the price of new panels would reverse years of declines and jump back up to 2012 levels". 6 April 2022.
  283. ^ "The U.S. solar industry has a Chinese problem". Solar Power World. 9 August 2021. Desari Strader, then-head of government affairs for SolarWorld Americas (Operator of the largest polysilicon production facility in the western world) "They were beating us on the cost of production," Strader said of Chinese suppliers at the time. "We had just finished ramping up . Of course the Chinese could come and dump in the U.S. It was super easy. Then everyone is screaming that you can't compete with Yeah, you're right. We can't compete with slave labor."
  284. ^ "As US moves to renewable energy, wind turbines from Xinjiang may get caught in political tempest". South China Morning Post. 30 December 2020. As more information emerges about the suspected use of forced labour in the region, the US government has begun restricting trade from the area.
  285. ^ "Renewable Power Costs in 2019". IRENA. 2 June 2020.
  286. ^ "IRENA and China agreed to strengthen co-operation on the promotion of climate finance and investment as well as the promotion of innovation, policies and technology in the area of renewable energy and climate change and facilitate enhanced international collaboration". IRENA. 23 June 2021.
  287. ^ "Germany's Solarworld files for bankruptcy again 28.03.2018". Deutsche Welle. Competition from China, the world's largest producer of solar panels, has been a major headache for Solarworld. The Bonn-based company noted that EU plans to let protective tariffs against Chinese imports lapse made its position untenable
  288. ^ "German Sun King's SolarWorld to file for insolvency". Reuters. 10 May 2017. ..."overwhelmed by Chinese rivals who had long been a thorn in the side..." "Germany used to be the world's biggest market for solar panels, with demand driven by generous government support that provided business for panel makers around the world, including Asia and the United States."
  289. ^ "The U.S. solar industry has a Chinese problem". Solar Power World. 9 August 2021. Desari Strader, then-head of government affairs for SolarWorld Americas. "If 30% of the cost of a panel is your polysilicon, and you're not paying wages, they were beating us on the cost of production,"
  290. ^ Feng, Emily (13 March 2018). "Security spending ramped up in China's restive Xinjiang region". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 December 2019. Even those who enjoy local celebrity status are not immune. Ablajan, a Uighur rapper, was recently detained and sent to a re-education camp, according to his brother.
  291. ^ "Family fears missing Uighur comedian taken to Chinese detention camp". CBC Radio. 31 December 2018.
  292. ^ Cockburn, Harry (28 November 2018). "Muslim woman describes torture and beatings in China detention camp: 'I begged them to kill me'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022.
  293. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (10 July 2019). "China Rebuked by 22 Nations Over Xinjiang Repression". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  294. ^ a b "Letter to UNHRC". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 9 August 2019.
  295. ^ a b Younes, Ali (21 August 2019). "Activists hail Qatar withdrawal from pro-China text over Uighurs". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  296. ^ a b Westcott, Ben; Roth, Richard (29 October 2019). "China's treatment of Uyghurs in Xinjiang divides UN members". CNN. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  297. ^ 张悦. "Statement at UN supports China on Xinjiang". China Daily. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  298. ^ Coca, Nithin (10 September 2020). "The Long Shadow of Xinjiang". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  299. ^ "HRC46 Principled action needed as China steps up efforts to rein in accountability". 24 March 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  300. ^ "China Backed by 65 Nations on Human Rights Despite Xinjiang Concerns". Newsweek. 23 July 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  301. ^ "At UN Human Rights Council, China manœuvres to ensure its own impunity". 26 March 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  302. ^ "Joint Statement" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 8 July 2019.
  303. ^ "Joint Statement by Cuba at the United Nations Third Committee". UN Web TV. 6 October 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021.
  304. ^ "Joint Statement on the Human Rights Situation in Xinjiang and the Recent Developments in Hong Kong, Delivered by Germany on Behalf of 39 Countries". United States Mission to the United Nations. 6 October 2020.
  305. ^ "US Rejects China's Request For UN to Cut Ties With NGO Linked to Exiled Uyghur Leader". Radio Free Asia. 22 March 2018.
  306. ^ "U.S. Once Jailed Uighurs, Now Defends Them at U.N." Foreign Policy. 25 March 2018.
  307. ^ "Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination reviews the report of China". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  308. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (10 August 2018). "U.N. Panel Confronts China Over Reports That It Holds a Million Uighurs in Camps". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  309. ^ "We can't ignore this brutal cleansing in China". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  310. ^ "Credible reports China holds 1 million Uighurs in 'massive internment camp' – UN". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  311. ^ "U.N. rights chief Bachelet takes on China, other powers in first speech". Reuters. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  312. ^ "UN counterterrorism chief visits internment camps in Xinjiang". South China Morning Post. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  313. ^ Colum Lynch; Robbie Gramer. "Xinjiang Visit by U.N. Counterterrorism Official Provokes Outcry". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  314. ^ "UN anti-terror official makes controversial trip to Xinjiang". Associated Press. 16 June 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  315. ^ Aoláin, Fionnuala Ní; et al. (1 November 2019). "REFERENCE: OL CHN 18/2019" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  316. ^ "UN experts call for decisive measures to protect fundamental freedoms in China". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  317. ^ "Independent UN rights experts call for decisive measures to protect 'fundamental freedoms' in China". UN News. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  318. ^ "China: UN experts deeply concerned by alleged detention, forced labour of Uyghurs". United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. 29 March 2021.
  319. ^ "Rights experts concerned about alleged detention, forced labour of Uyghurs in China". UN News. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  320. ^ "Speech by HR/VP Mogherini at the plenary session of the European Parliament on the state of the EU-China relations". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  321. ^ Gerin, Roseanne (21 February 2020). "EU Seen Turning Tough Rhetoric Into Action on Abuses Against Muslim Uyghurs in China". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  322. ^ "Texts adopted – Situation of the Uyghur in China (China-cables) – Thursday, 19 December 2019". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  323. ^ "Texts adopted – Forced labour and the situation of the Uyghurs in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region – Thursday, 17 December 2020". European Parliament. 17 December 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  324. ^ a b "US and Canada follow EU and UK in sanctioning Chinese officials over Xinjiang". the Guardian. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  325. ^ a b "Transatlantic allies unite in sanctions on China over Xinjiang". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  326. ^ "World Bank Statement on Review of Project in Xinjiang, China". World Bank. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  327. ^ Deif, Farida (21 March 2019). "A Missed Opportunity to Protect Muslims in China". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  328. ^ "With Pressure and Persuasion, China Deflects Criticism of Its Camps for Muslims". The New York Times. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  329. ^ Chan, Holmes (14 March 2019). "Organisation of Islamic Cooperation 'commends' China for its treatment of Muslims". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  330. ^ "US Muslim groups accuse OIC of abetting China's Uighur 'genocide'". Al Jazeera. AFP. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  331. ^ "Eradicating Ideological Viruses: China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims". Human Rights Watch. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  332. ^ "China: Massive Crackdown in Muslim Region". Human Rights Watch. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  333. ^ "Interview: China's Crackdown on Turkic Muslims". Human Rights Watch. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  334. ^ "Human Rights Watch Assails Chinese Treatment of Muslim Uyghur Minority". Radiofreeeurope/Radioliberty. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  335. ^ "CAIR Condemns U.S. Chinese Embassy for Celebrating Uyghur Genocide on Twitter, Calls on Platform to Remove 'Horrific' Tweet – CAIR – Council on American-Islamic Relations". 8 January 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  336. ^ ""Like we were enemies in a war"". Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  337. ^ ""Like we were enemies in a war" China's Mass Internment, Torture and Persecution of Muslims in Xinjiang" (PDF). 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  338. ^ Handley, Erin (24 September 2019). "'Deeply disturbing' footage surfaces of blindfolded Uyghurs at train station in Xinjiang". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  339. ^ "Representatives Council calls on International Community to protect Uighur Muslims in China". Bahrain News Agency. 2 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  340. ^ John Feng (23 June 2021). "China Backed by 65 Nations on Human Rights Despite Xinjiang Concerns". Newsweek. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  341. ^ "Joint Statement delivered by Permanent Mission of Belarus at the 44th session of Human Rights Council". 1 July 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  342. ^ "Ouïghours: la majorité wallonne et le cdH condamnent les violences commises contre les Ouïghours". RTBF Info (in French). 15 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  343. ^ Fife, Robert; Chase, Steven (22 February 2021). "Parliament declares China is conducting genocide against its Muslim minorities". The Globe and Mail.
  344. ^ "China Won't Budge on Xinjiang Despite Growing International Criticism". Asia Watch. Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  345. ^ a b c d e Putz, Catherine (9 October 2020). "2020 Edition: Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  346. ^ "Egyptian Police Detain Uighurs and Deport Them to China". The New York Times. 6 July 2017.
  347. ^ "'Nightmare' as Egypt aided China to detain Uighurs". France 24. 18 August 2019.
  348. ^ "France calls on China to close Uighur detention camps". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 27 November 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019. France has called on China to end "mass arbitrary detentions" in Xinjiang, where around one million ethnic Uighurs and other Muslim minorities are being held in camps that China calls vocational schools. "We call on China to put an end to mass arbitrary detentions," a foreign ministry spokesperson told reporters. Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian has called on China to close the camps and allow the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit Xinjiang as soon as possible to report on the situation.
  349. ^ "China – Q&A – From the press briefing (27 November 2019)". France Diplomatie Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs. 27 November 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  350. ^ "France to oppose EU-China deal over Uighur abuse". Anadolu Agency. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  351. ^ Emont, Jon (11 December 2019). "How China Persuaded One Muslim Nation to Keep Silent on Xinjiang Camps". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  352. ^ Conflict, Institute for Policy Analysis of (June 2019). "The Exodus to Southeast Asia". Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict. 57: 1–3. JSTOR resrep24208.4. {{cite journal}}: |first1= has generic name (help)
  353. ^ Emont, Jon (6 October 2022). "UN Human Rights Council rejects debate on Xinjiang". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  354. ^ Haqiqatnezhad, Reza (4 August 2020). "Iran Hardliners Claim China Is Serving Islam By Suppressing Uyghur Muslims". Radio Farda. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  355. ^ Brennan, David (2 September 2020). "Pompeo Condemns Iran's Silence on China Uyghurs After Khamenei Says UAE 'Betrayed' Islam". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  356. ^ "Press Conference by Foreign Minister MOTEGI Toshimitsu". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  357. ^ "Japan minister airs concern over China's treatment of Uyghurs". The Mainichi. 26 November 2019. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  358. ^ "Families Of The Disappeared: A Search For Loved Ones Held In China's Xinjiang Region". NPR. 12 November 2018.
  359. ^ "Carefully, Kazakhstan Confronts China About Kazakhs in Xinjiang Re-Education Camps". The Diplomat. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  360. ^ Sytas, Andrius (20 May 2021). "Lithuanian parliament latest to call China's treatment of Uyghurs 'genocide'". Reuters.
  361. ^ "Malaysia's New Govt Says it Won't Hand Over Uyghur Refugees to China". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  362. ^ "Dutch parliament becomes second in a week to accuse China of genocide in Xinjiang". CNN. Reuters. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  363. ^ "New Zealand draws back from calling Chinese abuses of Uyghurs genocide". the Guardian. 4 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  364. ^ Young, Audrey (31 March 2019). "Pressure on Jacinda Ardern to raise her voice in China against treatment of Uighur Muslims". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2019. "I've raised the issue of the Uighur before and I expect I will do so again," she said. "My expectation is that we will be consistent." She is traveling to China today for one day in Beijing tomorrow, where she will meet Premier Li Keqiang and President Xi Jinping, and returning on Tuesday.
  365. ^ Walls, Jason (3 November 2019). "Government expresses concern over 'human rights situation' regarding Chinese Uighur Muslims". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2019. Asked about why New Zealand had signed the letter, Foreign Minister Winston Peters last week said: "Because we believe in human rights, we believe in freedom and we believe in the liberty of personal beliefs and the right to hold them." Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern raised the issue when she met Chinese President Xi Jinping this year, but would not detail exactly what was said.
  366. ^ Cook, Sarah (14 January 2020). "Beijing's Global Megaphone: The Expansion of Chinese Communist Party Media Influence since 2017". Freedom House. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  367. ^ Lulu, Jichang (16 November 2018). "New Zealand: United Frontlings bearing gifts". Sinopsis. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  368. ^ Ines Pohl (19 January 2020). 'India has been taken over by a racially extremist ideology' Interview with Pakistani PM Imran Khan. DW News. Event occurs at 22:57. Retrieved 26 January 2020 – via YouTube.
  369. ^ "China's Xi says Beijing supports 'just demands' of Palestinians: state media". i24 News. July 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  370. ^ "Saudi And Palestinian Ambassadors Following Visit To Xinjiang: China Knows How To Handle Its Internal Affairs; Liberal Democracies Are Not Suitable For Everyone". Middle East Media Research Institute. Phoenix Television. 19 March 2021.
  371. ^ Flounders, Sara (9 June 2023). "A visit to Xinjiang, China – Accomplishments belie U.S. propaganda". Workers World. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  372. ^ Hoshur, Shohret (8 August 2021). "Those who ignore Uyghur genocide". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021.
  373. ^ "Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's remarks and answers to questions at the Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek, February 4, 2019". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  374. ^ a b Miles, Tom (13 July 2019). "Saudi Arabia and Russia among 37 states backing China's Xinjiang policy". Reuters. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  375. ^ "Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's remarks and answers to media questions at a joint news conference following talks with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan Mukhtar Tleuberdi, Nur-Sultan, October 9, 2019". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  376. ^ "Russia has no reason to act on reports about China's oppression of Muslims — Lavrov". 9 October 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019. "China has repeatedly provided clarifications concerning the accusations you have mentioned. I don't know who voiced them, it must have been our Western colleagues," Lavrov said in response to a question. "We don't have reasons to take any steps apart from procedures that exist within the UN, which I have mentioned, meaning the Human Rights Council," he added.
  377. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism'". Al Jazeera. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  378. ^ a b Ensor, Josie (22 February 2019). "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  379. ^ "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing". Newsweek. 22 February 2019.
  380. ^ "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide'". Business Insider. 23 February 2019.
  381. ^ a b "Switzerland concerned about the situation in Xinjiang, China )". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  382. ^ "Switzerland joins calls demanding closure of Uighur camps". Swissinfo. 27 November 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  383. ^ "Syria defends China's Uyghur policy after US condemnation". Middle East Monitor. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  384. ^ 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC (Taiwan) (3 October 2018). "The relocation of #Uyghurs in #Xinjiang to re-education camps around #China warrants the world's attention. JW" (Tweet). Retrieved 19 December 2019 – via Twitter.
  385. ^ 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC (Taiwan) (6 July 2019). "Commie elites school their children in Western democracies. But #Uyghurs get "centralized care" in #Xinjiang. What kind of government preys on its young people? Close the camps! Send the children home! JW" (Tweet). Retrieved 19 December 2019 – via Twitter.
  386. ^ 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC (Taiwan) (18 November 2019). "This chilling @nytimes expose on the mass detention of Muslims by #China is a must-read! Leaked internal documents tell the truth about the crackdown on ethnic minorities in #Xinjiang, as well as the "ruthless & extraordinary campaign" run by senior #Communist Party officials" (Tweet). Retrieved 19 December 2019 – via Twitter.
  387. ^ "Why Is Turkey Breaking Its Silence on China's Uyghurs?". The Diplomat. 12 February 2019.
  388. ^ Yellinek, Roie (5 March 2019). "Islamic Countries Engage with China Against the Background of Repression in Xinjiang". China Brief. 19 (5). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  389. ^ "Ortak ezgilerin buluştuğu Anadolu'ya bin selam olsun" [A thousand greetings to Anatolia where common melodies meet]. Milliyet (in Turkish). 25 July 2019. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019.
  390. ^ "Aydınlık, 'Öldürüldü' denilen ünlü Uygur ozan Abdurrehim Heyit ile görüştü" [Aydınlık met with the famous Uyghur bard Abdurrehim Heyit, who was called 'killed']. Aydınlık. 25 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
  391. ^ "China says Turkey president offered support over restive Xinjiang". Reuters. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  392. ^ Mai, Jun (2 July 2019). "Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's 'happy Xinjiang' comments 'mistranslated' in China". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  393. ^ Westcott, Ben (22 July 2019). "Erdogan says Xinjiang camps shouldn't spoil Turkey-China relationship". CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  394. ^ Ma, Alexandra (6 July 2019). "The last major opponent of China's Muslim oppression has retreated into silence. Here's why that's a big deal". Business Insider. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  395. ^ "Erdogan says solution possible for China's Muslims". South China Morning Post. 4 July 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  396. ^ "Turkish Uighurs Fear Deportation to China". Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  397. ^ Yackley, Ayla Jean; Shepherd, Christian (24 August 2019). "Turkey's Uighurs fear for future after China Deportation". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  398. ^ "K Parliamentary Roundtable on Xinjiang". Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  399. ^ James, William (16 December 2020). "UK says credible evidence of forced labour in China's Xinjiang region". Reuters. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  400. ^ "UK companies face fines over 'slave labour' China suppliers". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  401. ^ "Uyghurs: MPs state genocide is taking place in China". BBC News. 23 April 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  402. ^ "Chairs Urge Ambassador Branstad to Prioritize Mass Detention of Uyghurs, Including Family Members of Radio Free Asia Employees". Congressional-Executive Commission on China. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  403. ^ Wen, Philip (18 April 2018). "Tens of thousands detained in China's Xinjiang, U.S. diplomat says". Beijing: Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  404. ^ "Remarks by Vice President Pence at Ministerial To Advance Religious Freedom". Retrieved 26 July 2018 – via National Archives.
  405. ^ "Religious Freedom forum draws attention to persecution, false imprisonment and re-education camps". The Washington Times. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  406. ^ "Secretary of State Mike Pompeo: Religious persecution in Iran, China must end now". USA Today. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  407. ^ "Surveillance, Suppression, and Mass Detention: Xinjiang's Human Rights Crisis". Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  408. ^ "Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China". 27 July 2018. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  409. ^ "Group of U.S. lawmakers urges China sanctions over Xinjiang abuses". Reuters. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  410. ^ "Lawmakers urge Trump administration to sanction China over Muslim crackdown". ABC News. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  411. ^ "American Lawmakers Push to Sanction Chinese Officials Over Xinjiang Camps". The Wall Street Journal. 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  412. ^ "India Times: US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  413. ^ "US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps". Channel NewsAsia. 30 August 2018. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  414. ^ "Iran's Careful Approach to China's Uyghur Crackdown". The Diplomat. 18 September 2018.
  415. ^ a b Giordano, Chiara (12 March 2019). "China claims Muslims detention camps are just 'boarding schools'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  416. ^ Lipes, Joshua (12 September 2019). "US Senate Passes Legislation to Hold China Accountable for Rights Abuses in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  417. ^ "Uyghur bill demanding sanctions on Chinese officials passes US House of Representatives". ABC News. 4 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  418. ^ Westcott, Ben; Byrd, Haley (3 December 2019). "US House passes Uyghur Act calling for tough sanctions on Beijing over Xinjiang camps". CNN. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  419. ^ "Anger in China as US House passes Uighur crackdown bill". Al Jazeera. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  420. ^ Lipes, Joshua (17 June 2020). "Trump Signs Uyghur Rights Act Into Law, Authorizing Sanctions For Abuses in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  421. ^ Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (8 January 2020). "U.S. commission says China may be guilty of "crimes against humanity"". Axios. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  422. ^ Lipes, Joshua (8 January 2020). "China's Actions in Xinjiang May Amount to 'Crimes Against Humanity,' Says US Rights Report". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  423. ^ "China Lashes Out at U.S.'s Action Against Mass Incarcerations". The New York Times. 18 June 2020.
  424. ^ "Trump signs Uyghur human rights bill on same day Bolton alleges he told Xi to proceed with detention camps". CNN. 17 June 2020.
  425. ^ "Trump administration sanctions Chinese officials over human rights abuses". The Hill. 9 July 2020.
  426. ^ "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Chinese Officials Over Mass Detention of Muslims". The New York Times. 9 July 2020.
  427. ^ Lipes, Joshua (31 July 2020). "US Sanctions Key Paramilitary Group, Officials Over Abuses in China's Xinjiang Region". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  428. ^ Brufke, Juliegrace (22 September 2020). "House passes legislation to crack down on business with companies that utilize China's forced labor". The Hill. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  429. ^ "US: China 'committed genocide against Uighurs'". BBC News. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  430. ^ "Commerce Department Adds 34 Entities to the Entity List to Target Enablers of China's Human Rights Abuses and Military Modernization, and Unauthorized Iranian and Russian Procurement". U.S. Department of Commerce. 9 July 2021.
  431. ^ Westcott, Ben; Xiong, Yong (11 October 2018). "China legalizes Xinjiang 're-education camps' after denying they exist". CNN. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  432. ^ Zenz, Adrian (20 June 2018). "Reeducation Returns to China". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  433. ^ "China newspaper defends Xinjiang Muslim crackdown". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 13 August 2018. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018.
  434. ^ "China has prevented 'great tragedy' in Xinjiang, state-run paper says". Reuters. Beijing. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  435. ^ Steger, Isabella (13 August 2018). "China flat out denies the mass incarceration of Xinjiang's Uyghurs as testimonies trickle out". Quartz. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  436. ^ Griffiths, James; Westcott, Ben (14 August 2018). "China says claims 1 million Uyghurs put in camps 'completely untrue'". CNN. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  437. ^ "China Uighurs: Beijing denies detaining one million". BBC News. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  438. ^ Kuo, Lily (13 August 2018). "China denies violating minority rights amid detention claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  439. ^ "China Denies Detaining One Million Uighurs in 'Re-education' Camps". Time. Associated Press. 14 August 2018. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018.
  440. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang answered questions from reporters" (in Chinese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  441. ^ "Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?". Financial Times. 5 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  442. ^ "Harmony in Xinjiang Is Based on Three Principles". Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  443. ^ "China calls Human Rights Watch 'full of prejudice' after criticism of Xinjiang policy". Global News. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  444. ^ "China says Human Rights Watch report on Xinjiang suppression 'full of prejudice and distorted facts'". Hongkong Free Press. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  445. ^ a b "China tells U.N. rights chief to respect its sovereignty after Xinjiang comments". Reuters. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  446. ^ "China urges UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to respect its sovereignty after comments on Xinjiang". First Post. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  447. ^ "China to UN rights chief Bachelet: 'Respect our sovereignty'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  448. ^ Koetse, Manya (19 October 2018). "CCTV Airs Program on Xinjiang's 'Vocational Training Centers': Criticism & Weibo Responses". Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  449. ^ "China strikes at terrorism, extremism in accordance with law: white paper". Xinhua. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  450. ^ "Xinjiang Uygurs didn't choose to be Muslims, China says". South China Morning Post. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  451. ^ "China's secret 'brainwashing' camps". BBC News. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  452. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on December 6, 2019". 6 December 2019.
  453. ^ "China: Guantanamo report shows US hypocrisy". Associated Press. 6 December 2019.
  454. ^ Buckley, Chris (26 September 2020). "Brushing Off Criticism, China's Xi Calls Policies in Xinjiang 'Totally Correct'". The New York Times.
  455. ^ Mimi, Lau (17 September 2020). "China defends its 'vocational training centres' in Xinjiang white paper". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  456. ^ Agence France Presse (9 January 2021). "US voices disgust at China boast of Uighur population control". Arab News. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  457. ^ Wagner, Kurt; Martin, Peter (20 January 2021). "Twitter Locks Out Chinese Embassy in U.S. Over Post on Uighurs". Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  458. ^ Emmott, Robin; Brunnstrom, David (22 March 2021). "West sanctions China over Xinjiang abuses, Beijing hits back at EU". Reuters. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  459. ^ Fergus Ryan; Daria Impiombato; Hsi-Ting Pai (20 October 2022). "Frontier influencers: the new face of China's propaganda". Australian Strategic Policy Institute.
  460. ^ "A Call for a UN Investigation, And US Sanctions, On The Human Rights Disaster Unfolding in Xinjiang". China Change. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  461. ^ Saito, Mari (22 December 2019). "Clashes as police try to clear Hong Kong protesters after Uighur support rally". Reuters. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  462. ^ Simons, Marlise (6 July 2020). "Uighur Exiles Push for Court Case Accusing China of Genocide". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  463. ^ Kuo, Lily (7 July 2020). "Exiled Uighurs call on ICC to investigate Chinese 'genocide' in Xinjiang". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  464. ^ Griffiths, James (14 December 2020). "China avoids ICC prosecution over Xinjiang for now, but pressure is growing". CNN. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  465. ^ "Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2020" (PDF). The Office of the Prosecutor. International Criminal Court. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.

External links