In today's article, we will explore Zhongshan and its impact on today's world in detail. From its origin to its evolution today, Zhongshan has played a crucial role in different aspects of daily life. Over the years, Zhongshan has sparked great interest and debate, generating multiple perspectives and opinions that have shaped its meaning and relevance in society. From his impact on popular culture to his influence on technology and science, Zhongshan has left an indelible mark on the contemporary landscape. In this article, we will explore how Zhongshan has shaped the world we live in and what its implications are for the future.

Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
Zhongshan is located in Guangdong
Location in Guangdong
Zhongshan is located in China
Zhongshan (China)
Coordinates (Zhongshan municipal government): 22°31′01″N 113°23′33″E / 22.5170°N 113.3925°E / 22.5170; 113.3925
CountryPeople's Republic of China
County-level divisionsNone
Township-level divisions
  • 5 districts
  • 18 towns
  • 1 development zone
Municipal seatDongqu Subdistrict
 • CCP Committee SecretaryXue Xiaofeng (薛晓峰)
 • MayorChen Liangxian (陈良贤)
 • Prefecture-level city1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)
 • Metro
19,870.4 km2 (7,672.0 sq mi)
11 m (36 ft)
 (2020 census)
 • Prefecture-level city4,418,060
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 356.6 billion
US$ 55.3 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 80,157
US$ 12,425
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard Time)
Postal code
Area code0760
ISO 3166 codeCN-GD-20
License plate prefixes粤T
City flowerChrysanthemum
Websitewww.ZhongShan.gov.cn (Chinese)
"Zhongshan City", as written in Chinese
JyutpingZung1 saan1
Cantonese YaleJūngsāan
Hanyu PinyinZhōngshān ()
Literal meaning
Xiangshan (former name)
JyutpingHoeng1 saan1
Cantonese YaleHēungsāan
Hanyu PinyinXiāngshān
Literal meaningFragrant Mountain

Zhongshan (; Chinese: 中山) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China. As of the 2020 census, the whole city with 4,418,060 inhabitants is now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation with 65,565,622 inhabitants. The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki (Chinese: 石岐).

Zhongshan is one of the few Chinese cities to be named after a person. It was originally named Xiangshan (香山, "Fragrant Mountain"; Cantonese: Heung-saan), but was renamed in 1925 in honor of Sun Yat-sen, who is known in China as "Sun Zhongshan". Sun was the founding father of the Republic of China who is also regarded positively by the People's Republic. He was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County.

Sunwen Lu (Road) West at dusk.


Until 1925, Zhongshan was generally known as Xiangshan or Heung-san (Siangshan) (Chinese: 香山; lit. 'Fragrant Mountain'), in reference to the many flowers that grew in the mountains nearby. The city was renamed in honor of Sun Yat-sen, who had adopted the name Zhongshan. Sun is considered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China to be the "Father of Modern China", and was from Cuiheng village – now part of Nanlang Town in Zhongshan.


Thousands of years ago, much of the Zhongshan area lay within the Pearl River estuary, with only scattered islands above the surface. Gradually from south to north, the area filled in with alluvial silt and became dry land. The northern parts of today's Zhongshan did not fill in until the time of the Ming dynasty.

The Zhongshan area was part of an extended Dongguan County during the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD), and was a significant sea salt producer. In 1082, during the Northern Song dynasty, a fortified settlement called Xiangshan was founded in the area, marking the first official use of the name by which it would be known throughout most of its modern history. The prosperous settlement was then upgraded to a county in 1152. After the collapse of the Southern Song dynasty, many descendants of Song court officials, including members of the imperial family, settled in Xiangshan. Significant land formation in the area of Zhongshan occurred since the Ming dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty, embankments were built to prevent flooding in the new alluvial lands, and the area of cultivation was extended.

Much of the First Opium War took place in and around Xiangshan. In 1839, the official Lin Zexu arrived in Xiangshan and ordered the expulsion of Sir Charles Elliot and other British traders from the area. Qing dynasty soldiers resisted British attacks on the area in 1840, but were ultimately overwhelmed.

After the Opium Wars opened the region to foreign influence, a number of Xiangshan residents, including Sun Zhongshan (Yatsen), left to study overseas and were among the creators of modern China. Xiangshan was one of the first counties in China liberated as part of the Xinhai Revolution. After Sun Zhongshan's death in 1925, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of China decided to memorialize Sun by renaming his county of birth from Xiangshan to Zhongshan.

Nationalist and Communist units launched guerrilla attacks on Japanese occupancy forces and their Collaborators beginning in 1942. On August 15, 1945, Japanese forces declared an unconditional surrender, and Zhongshan was liberated.

Zhongshan was the scene of fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was held for much of the war by Nationalists. On October 30, 1949, however, the People's Liberation Army defeated Nationalist forces in Zhongshan, and the county came under the control of the People's Republic of China.

In 1983, Zhongshan was elevated in administrative status from a county to a county-level city under the administration of Foshan. In 1988 Zhongshan became a prefecture-level city.

Geography and climate

Zhongshan is located along the west side of the mouth of the Pearl River, directly opposite Shenzhen and Hong Kong. It lies south of Guangzhou and Foshan and north of Zhuhai and Macau. The northern part of Zhongshan, including most of the urbanized area, lies on the alluvial plains of the Pearl River Delta, while the southern part of the city's territory reaches into a range of coastal hills.

The most notable of these are the Wugui Hills (Chinese: 五桂山; pinyin: Wǔguī Shān; Jyutping: Ng5gwai3 Saan1). The city's current geography is typical of southern China: numerous steep mountains and hills with alluvial plains in between down to the coastline. The main summit of the Wugui Hills is the highest point in the city, at 531 metres (1,742 ft) above sea level.

Like nearly all of southern China, Zhongshan's climate is warm and humid most of the year, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F) and 175 centimetres (69 in) of rainfall each year. Southern China experiences fairly frequent typhoons and thunderstorms, and most rain falls between April and September.

Zhongshan's location in the Pearl River Delta.
Climate data for Zhongshan (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 18.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.6
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 11.7
Record low °C (°F) 1.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.9 9.5 12.8 13.6 15.5 19.0 16.7 17.3 13.0 6.7 5.6 5.7 142.3
Average relative humidity (%) 74 78 81 81 81 82 80 81 77 72 72 69 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.9 88.4 76.5 100.2 145.3 171.0 215.1 188.6 172.6 182.3 155.8 142.9 1,756.6
Percent possible sunshine 35 27 20 26 35 42 52 48 47 51 47 43 39
Source: China Meteorological Administration


Fufeng pagoda in Zhongshan Park.

Zhongshan is a city of numerous leafy parks, wide boulevards, and monuments. Notable sights include:

  • Sunwen Road West (or Sunwen Xilu) in Zhongshan Old Town, a pedestrian mall lined with dozens of restored buildings from the colonial period in treaty port style. Several of these buildings were built in the 1920s.
  • The seven-story Fufeng Pagoda, built in 1608 and visible from all over the city, is on a hill in Zhongshan Park, which abuts the western end of Sunwen Road West immediately to its north. A Sun Yat-sen memorial pavilion stands near the pagoda.
  • Sunwen Memorial Park, at the southern end of Xingzhong Road, is the site of the largest bronze sculpture of Sun Yat-sen in the world.

Zhongshan, like many cities in China, has a rapidly changing cityscape with many new buildings under construction. Currently, the tallest completed buildings in the city are the two Zhongshan International Finance Center Towers. Tower 1 and Tower 2 both reach a height of 220 meters (720 feet) and are 55 stories tall. These will be eclipsed by the Perfect Eagle Golden Square tower, which will reach 238 meters (781 feet), with an expected completion date in 2018. The International Trade Center in Guzhen Town, expected to be completed in 2019, will reach a height of 305 meters (1,001 feet) with 65 floors.


Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division, but the municipal government does group the 24 township-level divisions into five district areas. The city government directly administers 8 Subdistricts and 15 towns:

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census) Area (km2) Density (/km2) Division code Residential communities Administrative villages
Zhongxin Area 中心片区 Zhōngxīn Piànqū 877,666 456.7 1,921.75 5 subdistricts, 3 towns
Shiqi Subdistrict 石岐街道 Shíqí Jiēdào 206,362 26.0 7,937.00 442000001 19
Dongqu Subdistrict 东区街道 Dōngqū Jiēdào 153,477 72.0 2,131.62 442000002 10
Xiqu Subdistrict 西区街道 Xiqū Jiēdào 97,864 26.7 3,665.31 442000004 9
Nanqu Subdistrict 南区街道 Nánqū Jiēdào 64,548 48.0 1,344.75 442000005 10
Wuguishan Subdistrict 五桂山街道 Wǔguìshān Jiēdào 48,019 113.0 424.94 442000006 1 4
Shaxi town 沙溪镇 Shāxī Zhèn 119,372 55.0 2,170.40 442000106 1 15
Gangkou town 港口镇 Gǎngkǒu Zhèn 113,748 70.5 1,613.44 442000108 7 2
Dachong town 大涌镇 Dàyǒng Zhèn 74,276 45.5 1,632.43 442000116 6 2
Dongbu Area 东部片区 Dōngbù Piànqū 337,974 296.0 1,141.80 2 subdistricts, 1 new area
Zhongshangang Subdistrict 中山港街道 Zhōngshāngǎng Jiēdào 229,997 90.0 2,555.52 442000003 7
Nanlang Subdistrict 南朗街道 Nánlǎng Jiēdào 107,977 206.0 524.16 442000113 2 13
Cuiheng New Area 翠亨新区 Cuíhēng Xīnqū
Dongbei Area 东北片区 Dōngběi Piànqū 375,204 281.3 1,333.82 1 Subdistrict, 2 towns
Minzhong Subdistrict 民众街道 Mínzhòng Jiēdào 108,417 125.4 864.56 442000102 3 16
Huangpu town 黄圃镇 Huángpǔ Zhèn 145,017 83.6 1,734.65 442000101 4 12
Sanjiao town 三角镇 Sānjiǎo Zhèn 121,770 72.3 1,684.23 442000109 1 7
Xibei Area 西北片区 Xīběi Piànqū 996,097 397.7 2,504.64 6 towns
Xiaolan town 小榄镇 Xiǎolǎn Zhèn 433,678 152.1 2,851.26 442000100 23 6
Dongfeng town 东凤镇 Dōngfèng Zhèn 123,562 54.8 2,254.78 442000103 4 10
Guzhen town 古镇镇 Gǔzhèn Zhèn 147,440 47.8 3,084.51 442000105 1 12
Henglan town 横栏镇 Hénglán Zhèn 103,135 76.0 1,357.03 442000110 1 10
Nantou town 南头镇 Nántóu Zhèn 130,712 30.0 4,357.06 442000111 6
Fusha town 阜沙镇 Fùshā Zhèn 57,570 37.0 1,555.94 442000112 1 8
Nanbu Area 南部片区 Nánbù Piànqū 533,944 370.6 1,440.75 4 towns
Tanzhou town 坦洲镇 Tǎnzhōu Zhèn 219,943 136.0 1,617.22 442000107 7 7
Sanxiang town 三乡镇 Sānxiāng Zhèn 200,197 93.6 2,138.85 442000114 3 12
Banfu town 板芙镇 Bǎnfú Zhèn 82,412 82.0 1,005.02 442000115 1 10
Shenwan town 神湾镇 Shénwān Zhèn 31,392 59.0 532.06 442000117 1 5
Administrative divisions of Zhongshan
Division code English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2 Population 2010 Seat Postal code Divisions
Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Administrative villages
442000 Zhongshan City 中山市 Zhōngshān Shì 1,783.67 3,121,275 City-administered District 528400 6 18 128 151
442000 City-administered District 市辖区 Shìxiáqū 1,783.67 3,121,275 Dongqu Subdistrict 528400 6 18 128 151


Although the main ethnic group in Zhongshan is Han Chinese, there is no one dominant language or dialect spoken making Zhongshan one of the most diverse cities in China. Dialects spoken in the city ranging from the more common Yue, Hakka, and Min dialects to the more local Shiqi, Shatian, Longdu, Nanlang, Sanxiang, Guzhen, Sanjiao, and Zhangjiabian dialects as well as Wuiguishan, the only Hakka dialect in the city. The most common language, however, is Cantonese.





Primary industries

Primary productions are agricultural, such as rice, lychee, banana, and sugar cane. Added to this, horticulture in Xiaolan Town is famous throughout southern China for its blooming chrysanthemum and chickens.

Manufacturing industries

Zhongshan, Dongguan, Nanhai, and Shunde are dubbed the 'Four Little Tigers' in Guangdong. The proximity of Zhongshan to Hong Kong and Macau is an advantage to its economic development, especially in manufacturing.

In the 1980s, Zhongshan had a relatively developed state-owned enterprise (SOE) sector that was used to stimulate Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) development in the countryside. Currently, the SOE sector is much weaker, and the economy is dominated by foreign investment and TVEs, and by specialized 'manufacturing towns'. Each of these towns specializes in making a particular product. Most of the towns have earned a reputation as leading manufacturers in their pillar industries.

These specialized manufacturing towns include:

The government of Zhongshan encourages "Research and Design" in the region by setting up national level research centres and specialized industrial regions. For example, the Zhongshan National Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone (中山国家级火炬高技术产业开发区) was established in 1990 in the east of the city by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governments of Guangdong province and Zhongshan. Zhongshan Port, which ranks among the top 10 ports nationwide in container-handling capacity, is in the zone. Since 2001, it has included the Zhongshan Electronic Base of China (中国电子中山基地) for its reputation in the electronic acoustics industry. Following possible development in Nansha, the city considers its eastern part, of which 400 square kilometres (154 square miles) of land is available, a focus of future development.

Currently, the city is trying to re-organize its fragmented industrialization. Meanwhile, the light and labour-intensive industry characteristic of the local economy faces the problem of a shortage of land in Zhongshan.

Tourism, recreation and leisure

  • Zhongshan Museum of Art
    Two natural hot spring resorts are located in Sanxiang Town, such as the national own firm Zhongshan Hot Springs Resort, which is ranked top 10[citation needed] hot spring resorts in China because there is a rare hot spring reservoir in the Pearl River Delta.

The World Lamp King Museum, a lamp museum in the form of a giant lamp scheduled to open in 2015, will be a major tourist attraction.[citation needed]

  • Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Museum: The former residence of Sun Zhongshan is at the center of the Memorial Museum, located in the village of Cuiheng.
  • Xiaolan: Many houses in the town of Xiaolan have garden pavilions dedicated to the cultivation of chrysanthemums. Roofs and balconies, streets and lanes feature countless varieties of chrysanthemum plantings.

Zhongshan is home to a number of forest parks which are designed to protect the natural features of the land and offer visitors a chance to get closer to nature. Zhongshan Tianxin Forest Park (中山田心森林公园) was opened in 2015 as part of the city's "green lung" initiative.


Colleges and universities

Statue of Sun Yat-sen in Sunwen Memorial Park.
  • Guangdong Pharmaceutical University (Zhongshan Campus)
  • University of Electronic Science and Technology
  • Guangdong Polytechnic Institute (Zhongshan Campus)
  • Zhongshan Polytechnic
  • Zhongshan Torch Polytechnic

High schools and institutions

  • Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School (Chinese: 中山市华侨中学) opened in 1954(Mr. Chen Maoyuan, a returned overseas Chinese, initiated the establishment of the school), is one of the first top-grade schools of Guangdong Province (省一级学校) and the first national demonstrative ordinary high schools (国家级示范性普通高中).
  • Sun Yat-sen Memorial Secondary School (中山纪念中学; Zhōngshān Jìniàn Zhōngxúe) was established in memory of Sun Yat-sen in 1934, and was built under the supervision of Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen.
  • Zhongshan No. 1 Middle School (中山市第一中学; Zhōngshānshì Dìyī Zhōngxúe) opened in 1908.
  • Guangdong Zhongshan Experimental Middle School
  • Zhongshan Guishan Middle School
  • Guangdong Bowen International School
  • Sanxin Bilingual School
  • China-Hong Kong English School

Notable people


Public Buses

Zhongshan Public Transport Group Co., Ltd. operates many bus routes throughout the city. Stop announcements are voiced in Mandarin and Cantonese on all buses. On BRT system buses, announcements are also voiced in English. By purchasing a Zhongshan Tong card from authorized retailers, riders can receive a discount of 50% on all bus rides. Elderly citizens are allowed to ride for free.

Ferry Transport

Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Zhongshan with Hong Kong with multiple daily scheduled high-speed ferry services to both Hong Kong–Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Kowloon. The trip by ferry takes about 1.5 hours.


Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway serves the city of Zhongshan with seven stations.


The Zhongshan Metro system is currently under planning with 2 lines.


There is a bus service from Zhongshan to Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport in Shenzhen.

Additionally Zhongshan is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Zhongshan Ferry Terminal to the HKIA Skypier. There are also coach bus services connecting Zhongshan with HKIA.

Major projects

Twin towns – sister cities

Zhongshan has seven sister cities:


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External links