Nowadays, Caryophyllales has become a topic of great relevance in our society. With the advancement of technology and globalization, Caryophyllales has significantly impacted people's lives, both personally and professionally. Since its emergence, Caryophyllales has generated extensive debate and has been the subject of numerous studies and research. In this article, we will explore in detail all aspects related to Caryophyllales, from its origin to its influence today. We will analyze how Caryophyllales has shaped our behaviors, our interactions and our environment, and reflect on the challenges and opportunities it presents.

Dianthus caryophyllus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superasterids
Order: Caryophyllales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl




Caryophyllales (/ˌkæri.fɪˈllz/ KARR-ee-oh-fih-LAY-leez) is a diverse and heterogeneous order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves. The betalain pigments are unique in plants of this order and occur in all its families with the exception of Caryophyllaceae and Molluginaceae.


The members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species. This order is part of the core eudicots. Currently, the Caryophyllales contains 37 families, 749 genera, and 11,620 species The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations.


As with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants.

Systematists were undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade. The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey, Hutchinson, and others; as Lawrence relates: "The evidence is reasonably conclusive that the Primulaceae and the Caryophyllaceae have fundamentally the same type of gynecia, and as concluded by Douglas (1936)(and essentially Dickson, 1936) '...the vascular pattern and the presence of locules at the base of the ovary point to the fact that the present much reduced flower of the Primulaceae has descended from an ancestor which was characterized by a plurilocular ovary and axial placentation. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham, Bessy, and Hutchinson have suggested.' "

Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Caryophyllineae and Polygonineae. These two suborders were formerly (and sometimes still are) recognized as two orders, Polygonales and Caryophyllales.

Cactaceae native to the middle region of South America, at Marsh Botanical Garden. Cactaceae are a plant family, under the order Caryophyllales.


Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV.


As circumscribed by the APG III system (2009), this order includes the same families as the APG II system (see below) plus the new families, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, and Anacampserotaceae.


As circumscribed by the APG II system (2003), this order includes well-known plants like cacti, carnations, spinach, beet, rhubarb, sundews, venus fly traps, and bougainvillea. Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales.

Cactaceaeː Gymnocalycium Matoensea at Yale's Marsh Botanical Garden.


Carnegiea gigantea
Sweet William Dwarf from the family Caryophyllaceae
A flower of Dianthus

This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998

  • order Caryophyllales
    family Achatocarpaceae
    family Aizoaceae
    family Amaranthaceae
    family Ancistrocladaceae
    family Asteropeiaceae
    family Basellaceae
    family Cactaceae
    family Caryophyllaceae
    family Didiereaceae
    family Dioncophyllaceae
    family Droseraceae
    family Drosophyllaceae
    family Frankeniaceae
    family Molluginaceae
    family Nepenthaceae
    family Nyctaginaceae
    family Physenaceae
    family Phytolaccaceae
    family Plumbaginaceae
    family Polygonaceae
    family Portulacaceae
    family Rhabdodendraceae
    family Sarcobataceae
    family Simmondsiaceae
    family Stegnospermataceae
    family Tamaricaceae


Chenopodium album

The Cronquist system (1981) also recognised the order, with this circumscription:

  • order Caryophyllales
    family Achatocarpaceae
    family Aizoaceae
    family Amaranthaceae
    family Basellaceae
    family Cactaceae
    family Caryophyllaceae
    family Chenopodiaceae
    family Didiereaceae
    family Nyctaginaceae
    family Phytolaccaceae
    family Portulacaceae
    family Molluginaceae

The difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order". The APG favours much larger orders and families, and the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist.

A part of the difference lies with what families are recognized. The plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae (still recognized by Cronquist) are included in Amaranthaceae by APG.

New to the order (sensu APG) are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, and two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales.

Earlier circumscriptions

Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, and the Engler system, updated in 1964, had a similar order under the name Centrospermae.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. hdl:10654/18083.
  2. ^ Clarke, Ian; Lee, Helen (2003). Name that Flower: The Identification of Flowering Plants. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-522-85060-4.
  3. ^ Kubitzki, Klaus; Bayer, Clemens; Cuénoud, Philippe (January 2003). Flowering Plants · Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-3-642-07680-0.
  4. ^ "Caryophyllales". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
  5. ^ Judd., W.; Campbell, C.; Kellogg, E.; Stevens, P.; Donoghue, M. (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach (3rd ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2.
  6. ^ Stephens, P.F. (2020). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Version 14. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d Juan, R.; Pastor, J.; Alaiz, M.; Vioque, J. (1 September 2007). "Electrophoretic characterization of Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implications". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 155 (1): 57–63. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00665.x.
  8. ^ Lawrence, G.H.M (1960). Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan. p. 660.
  9. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.

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